|Year : 2020 | Volume
| Issue : 1 | Page : 6-10
Effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic field exposure on neurophysiology
Chidiebere Emmanuel Okechukwu
Department of Biomedicine and Prevention, Faculty of Medicine and Surgery, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Roma RM, Italy
|Date of Submission||01-Sep-2019|
|Date of Acceptance||30-Sep-2019|
|Date of Web Publication||03-Jan-2020|
Chidiebere Emmanuel Okechukwu
Department of Biomedicine and Prevention, Faculty of Medicine and Surgery, University of Roma Tor Vergata, Via Montpellier, 1, 00133 Roma RM
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
The human body is a permissible medium, and radiofrequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) waves pass through this medium. The effects exerted by RF-EMF devices such as mobile phones on brain tissues are categorised into thermal and non-thermal effects. The aim of this review was to analyse the interactions and interface between RF-EMF exposure and the nervous system, to ascertain any negative impact on the nervous system at both cellular, molecular and systems level. Original studies that reported on the effects of RF-EMF exposure on the brain function and nervous system from inception to 20 August 2019 were searched online. The PubMed database was utilised. The MeSH system was used to excerpt relevant research studies from PubMed using the following keywords: electromagnetic field, radiofrequency, mobile phone, brain, central nervous system, radiation and neurophysiology. All selected articles were published in the English. Full articles were assessed, and relevant information was extracted. RF-EMF exposure significantly altered several neurophysiological mechanisms based on electroencephalogram studies and molecular and biochemical analysis. However, there was no substantial evidence linking RF-EMF exposure to the pathogenesis of brain tumour.
Keywords: Brain, central nervous system, electromagnetic field, mobile phone, radiation, radiofrequency
|How to cite this article:|
Okechukwu CE. Effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic field exposure on neurophysiology. Adv Hum Biol 2020;10:6-10
| Introduction|| |
The human body is a permissible medium, and radiofrequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) waves pass through this medium. The effects exerted by RF-EMF devices such as mobile phones on brain tissues are categorised into thermal and non-thermal effects. One possible biological mechanism by which RF-EMF causes deviations in neuronal activities is by upsetting regional cerebral blood flow. Residents living close to mobile phone base positions are at risk of developing neuropsychiatric complications and some vicissitudes in the performance of neurobehavioural functions both in facilitation and inhibition. The contact of adult rats with RF-EMF caused alterations in monoamine neurotransmitters and this might trigger several adverse effects such as stress and alterations in learning and memory. Sensorineural hearing loss was associated with mobile phone use. The use of mobile phones is a risk factor for health threats, and therefore, steady use of mobile phones should be minimised or avoided.
Chronic exposure to GSM 900 MHz microwaves (specific absorption rate = 6W/kg) induced insistent astroglia stimulation in the rat brain which is a sign of possible gliosis., Mobile phone radiation causes oxidative stress in corneal and lens tissues, and Vitamin C as an antioxidant could aid in averting these effects. Few statistical indications showed that mobile phone exposure might cause headache and reduction of the reflex and clunking sound in the ears. Assessment of the unswerving recording of brain cortical and hippocampal activity throughout a high-frequency EMF exposure demonstrates the negative effects of RF-EMF on the central nervous system (CNS). The findings from a meta-analysis propose that RF-EMF might have a minor effect on human attention and functional memory. Neonates exposed to RF-EMF had a substantial reduction in their pyramidal cell quantity at the cornu ammonis, and there was a significant rise in brain lipid and protein oxidation after RF-EMF exposure. The use of mobile and cordless phones amplified the risk for glioma, especially the ipsilateral use; the risk was maximum in the age group <20 years. Mobile phone use decreased pyramidal neuron numbers by 51.15% and improved ischemic neuron numbers by 73% at cortex region of the brain.
Mobile phone use changed resting electroencephalogram (EEG) patterns and values by reducing 1–4 Hz activity at the right hemisphere sites and increasing 8–12 Hz activity as a function of exposure period at the midline posterior positions. Cell phone exposure altered early phase-locked neural responses, decreasing the normal response over time in the 4-8 Hz band, reducing the response in the 1230 Hz band, and increasing midline frontal and lateral posterior responses in the 30-45 Hz band of resting EEG. Pulsated high-frequency EMF exposure could affect the normal brain physiology. Low specific absorption rate (SAR) microwave radiation exposure 2450 MHz at SAR 6.672 × 10 (−4) W/kg could induce DNA strand breaks in the brain tissue.
The amount of nitric oxide synthase (NOS)-positive neurons and the strength of positive staining in hippocampus decreased at 1.5 and 24 h after exposure to electromagnetic pulses. At 48 h, the quantity of NOS-positive neurons inverted to control level, but the intensity of positive staining was low, the mien of NOS in the cerebellum had no obvious changes. Perinatal and postnatal contact with mobile phones was linked to behavioural complications such as mood and hyperactivity problems within the age of school entrance.
Mobile phones discharge a pulsated high-frequency EMF which might infiltrate the scalp and the skull progressively, there is much curiosity in the communication between this pulsed microwave radiation with the human CNS. Mobile phone exposure might distress neuronal action, mostly in propinquity to the phone. Usage of analogue cellular phones augmented the risk for acoustic neuroma by 5% for every 100 h of use, the menace improved for astrocytoma Grade III–IV with latency period at uppermost estimations >10-year period from the onset use of these phone categories and the peril amplified each 1 year of use of analogue phones by 10%.
Same side or ipsilateral use of a cell phone augmented the risk of tumours in the temporal, temporo-parietal and occipital areas. The ipsilateral use of an analogue cell phone produced a significantly upgraded risk for malignant brain tumours. There was a propensity of a shorter tumour induction period for ipsilateral contact with microwaves than for contralateral, which specify a tumorigenesis effect. A significant association was found between vestibular Schwannoma and the use of analogue cell phones.
Long period of mobile phone use was linked to cancerous brain tumours., An enlarged risk was found for glioma, and on the use of mobile or cordless phone, the risk rises with latency time and collective use in hours and was uppermost in individuals with first use before the age of 20.
An analysis of 99 case studies of gliomas was carried out using logistic regression, the visible cases were those with the tumour midpoint within 4.6 cm from the mark between the mouth and the external meatus of the ear, which is the most likely position of the mobile phone investigation built on several indicators of mobile phone use as the consequence were conducted and most cases were consistent mobile phone users, a slightly higher percentage of gliomas exist among mobile phone users than non-users, this occurred around 4.6 cm from the supposed location of the mobile phone. With the aid of a light microscope, it was observed that emerging neurons of dorsal root ganglion exposed to RF-EMF were damaged and it was dose dependent and continued despite the exposure-free period between two exposures. The comparative dangers associated with a collective use of mobile phone for ≥100 h were 0.9 for glioma (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.5–1.6), 0.7 for meningioma (95% CI: 0.3–1.7), 1.4 for acoustic neuroma (95% CI: 0.6–3.5) and 1.0 for all types of tumours combined (95% CI: 0.6–1.5).
A study was conducted to know if continuous wave (CW) RF fields induce neuron cell death in vitro, rat primary neuronal cultures stayed visible to a CW 900 MHz RF field with a SAR of 2 W/kg for 24 h, the outcomes showed that under the investigation settings used, exposure of primary rat neurons to CW RF fields might induce a caspase-independent pathway to apoptosis. The findings from an investigation of EEG reactions to mobile phone exposure, using an RF-EMF frequency of 902.4 MHz at an intensity of 0.06 mW/cm 2 showed a significant rise of comprehensive correlation dimension during the exposure and after exposure period, which was more distinct when the eyes was closed, this implies cortex activation during cellular phone RF-EMF exposure. Cell phone exposure effects on the human EEG have been described during waking and sleep states although with slight variations in the frequency affected, these variances might be partially due to individual variations in response and cellphone RF emissions might have huge but variance effects on human brain function. The widespread use of mobile phones increases the interface EMF and the CNS, high energetic radiofrequency exposure caused a reduction in cellular gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) level in the cerebellum.
A study conducted by using a head-only exposure device in rats, showed that rats exposed to 15-min of 900-MHz pulsed microwaves at a high brain-averaged power of 6 W/kg, had a strong glial reaction in their brain, this effect indicates neuronal damage, mostly in the striatum, also significant changes were observed in the equilibrium dissociation constant (Kd) and maximum number of receptors (Bmax) values of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) and GABAA receptors as well as on dopamine transporters at the postsynaptic membrane; generally, there was a swift cellular and molecular modifications in the rat brain after an acute exposure to high power Global System for Mobile communication 900-MHz microwaves. An examined time drifts in the age-adjusted occurrence frequency of adult neuronal cancers in the surveillance, epidemiology, and end Results program from 1973 to 2002, specify that mobile phone use is unconnected to the risk of neuronal cancers.
The aim of this review was to analyse the interactions and interface between RF-EMF exposure and the nervous system, to ascertain any negative impact on the nervous system at both cellular, molecular and systems level.
| Materials and Methods|| |
Original studies that reported on the effects of RF-EMF exposure on brain function and nervous system from inception to 20th August 2019 were searched online. The PubMed database was utilised. The MeSH system was used to excerpt relevant research studies from PubMed using the following keywords: electromagnetic field, radiofrequency, mobile phone, brain, CNS, radiation and neurophysiology. All selected articles were published in the English. Full articles were assessed, and relevant information was extracted.
Effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic field exposure on the central nervous system
RF-EMF exposure was capable of eliciting changes in the CNS, by causing neuronal cell apoptosis, altering the physiology of nerve myelin and ion channels  [Figure 1].
|Figure 1: Possible biological effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic field on human nervous system.|
Click here to view
RF-EMF affects sleep pattern and quality. Interestingly, transgenic Alzheimer's mice exposed to RF-EMF for ≥8 months had improvement in cognitive abilities. An increase in glucose metabolism was observed in the brains of rats exposed to RF-EMF over a long period of time. Exposure to a low-frequency RF-EMF is enough to modulate vesicle endocytosis by enhancing presynaptic calcium channel expression at a central synapse. However, the number of synaptic vesicles reduced significantly in the cerebral cortex of mice exposed to RF-EMF. Exposure of mice to 835 MHz RF-EMF over a long period of time induced hyperactivity, autophagy and demyelination in the cortical neurons. Male offspring of rats' exposed to RF-EMF had a rise in malondialdehyde and glutathione levels and atrophy of spinal cord; they also had hypertrophy of myelin in the cell body, which caused severe damage to the myelin sheaths. Long period of exposure to RF-EMF can lead to mood disorders, stress and poor quality of sleep. However, cytoarchitectural changes, single- and double-stranded DNA breaks were observed in rat brain cells after acute exposure to RF-EMF.
| Discussion|| |
Many extensive animal-based experimental studies have been conducted in the past, to understand the effects of RF-EMF on the nervous system, most of the studies investigated on the interactions between brain cells and RF-EMF exposure. With recent advances in technology and because RF-EMF are emitted by power lines, computers, mobile phones, mobile phone base stations, cordless phones, wireless networking technology (Wi-Fi) and bluetooth devices, more investigations are needed to understand the effects of this devices on neurophysiology.
Changes in the CNS function which manifested as instabilities in EEG pattern, sleep pattern and neuroendocrine function have been detected with increased mobile phone use, along with reduced melatonin secretion. Heat dissipation is mostly related to the absorption of high-frequency RF-EMF resulting from enhanced electrical conductivity of the nerve and brain tissues, heat effects might cause disruption of neuronal function and growth, increase in brain tissue temperature is associated with the disproportion between heat generation and heat dissipation, thermal generation depends on specific absorption rate and energy level, which is the power density of emitted RF-EMF radiations which must exceed 100 mW/cm 2 to have thermal effect on tissues of the CNS, thermal dissipation involves three mechanisms, which are heat conduction to the surrounding brain tissues, convection through blood perfusion and radiation to the surroundings.
Eser et al. found severe deteriorating changes, shrivelled cytoplasm and broadly dark pyknotic nuclei in brain cells of rats exposed to RF-EMF, laboratory analysis confirmed that the total antioxidative capacity level was significantly reduced in RF-EMF exposed rats and total oxidative capacity and oxidative stress index levels were significantly increased in the frontal cortex, brain stem and cerebellum. Interleukin-1 β level was significantly increased in the brain stem of rats exposed to RF-EMF, moreover, RF-EMF caused structural changes in the frontal cortex, brain stem and cerebellum and enhances the oxidative stress and inflammatory cytokine system in rats. There were fluctuations in human brain wave activity during exposure to RF emissions from mobile phones. Exposure to RF emissions from cell phones alters the EEG pattern and this may have adverse effect on sleep quality and neuroendocrine system. However, mobile phone use or exposure to RF emissions from cell phones is not a strong risk factor for mortality attributed to brain tumours.
There is need for further studies to ascertain the effects of RF-EMF on mood, learning and memory. Mobile phone is the most common RF emitting device currently used today, there is need to investigate the thermal and non-thermal effects of smart phones RF emissions, on cell membrane structures, blood–brain barrier, endothelial function, immune system and on the nervous system excitability and inhibitory mechanisms.
| Conclusion|| |
RF-EMF exposure significantly altered several neurophysiological mechanisms based on EEG studies conducted on humans and molecular and biochemical findings in animal experimentations. However, there was no substantial evidence linking RF-EMF exposure to the pathogenesis of brain tumour.
Financial support and sponsorship
Conflicts of interest
There are no conflicts of interest.
| References|| |
Aalto S, Haarala C, Brück A, Sipilä H, Hämäläinen H, Rinne JO. Mobile phone affects cerebral blood flow in humans. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 2006;26:885-90.
Abdel-Rassoul G, El-Fateh OA, Salem MA, Michael A, Farahat F, El-Batanouny M, et al.
Neurobehavioral effects among inhabitants around mobile phone base stations. Neurotoxicology 2007;28:434-40.
Aboul Ezz HS, Khadrawy YA, Ahmed NA, Radwan NM, El Bakry MM. The effect of pulsed electromagnetic radiation from mobile phone on the levels of monoamine neurotransmitters in four different areas of rat brain. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci 2013;17:1782-8.
Al-Dousary SH. Mobile phone induced sensorineural hearing loss. Saudi Med J 2007;28:1283-6.
Al-Khlaiwi T, Meo SA. Association of mobile phone radiation with fatigue, headache, dizziness, tension and sleep disturbance in Saudi population. Saudi Med J 2004;25:732-6.
Ammari M, Brillaud E, Gamez C, Lecomte A, Sakly M, Abdelmelek H, et al.
Effect of a chronic GSM 900 MHz exposure on glia in the rat brain. Biomed Pharmacother 2008;62:273-81.
Ammari M, Gamez C, Lecomte A, Sakly M, Abdelmelek H, De Seze R. GFAP expression in the rat brain following sub-chronic exposure to a 900 MHz electromagnetic field signal. Int J Radiat Biol 2010;86:367-75.
Balci M, Devrim E, Durak I. Effects of mobile phones on oxidant/antioxidant balance in cornea and lens of rats. Curr Eye Res 2007;32:21-5.
Balikci K, Cem Ozcan I, Turgut-Balik D, Balik HH. A survey study on some neurological symptoms and sensations experienced by long term users of mobile phones. Pathol Biol (Paris) 2005;53:30-4.
Barcal J, Vozeh F. Effect of whole-body exposure to high-frequency electromagnetic field on the brain cortical and hippocampal activity in mouse experimental model. Neuroquantology 2007;5:292-302.
Barth A, Winker R, Ponocny-Seliger E, Mayrhofer W, Ponocny I, Sauter C, et al.
A meta-analysis for neurobehavioural effects due to electromagnetic field exposure emitted by GSM mobile phones. Occup Environ Med 2008;65:342-6.
Bas O, Odaci E, Kaplan S, Acer N, Ucok K, Colakoglu S.900 MHz electromagnetic field exposure affects qualitative and quantitative features of hippocampal pyramidal cells in the adult female rat. Brain Res 2009;1265:178-85.
Bilgici B, Akar A, Avci B, Tuncel OK. Effect of 900 MHz radiofrequency radiation on oxidative stress in rat brain and serum. Electromagn Biol Med 2013;32:20-9.
Carlberg M, Hardell L. On the association between glioma, wireless phones, heredity and ionising radiation. Pathophysiology 2012;19:243-52.
Celikozlu SD, Ozyurt MS, Cimbiz A, Yardimoglu MY, Cayci MK, Ozay Y. The effects of long-term exposure of magnetic field via 900-MHz GSM radiation on some biochemical parameters and brain histology in rats. Electromagn Biol Med 2012;31:344-55.
Croft RJ, Chandler JS, Burgess AP, Barry RJ, Williams JD, Clarke AR. Acute mobile phone operation affects neural function in humans. Clin Neurophysiol 2002;113:1623-32.
Curcio G, Ferrara M, Moroni F, D'Inzeo G, Bertini M, De Gennaro L. Is the brain influenced by a phone call? An EEG study of resting wakefulness. Neurosci Res 2005;53:265-70.
Deshmukh PS, Megha K, Banerjee BD, Ahmed RS, Chandna S, Abegaonkar MP, et al.
Detection of low level microwave radiation induced deoxyribonucleic acid damage vis-à-vis genotoxicity in brain of fischer rats. Toxicol Int 2013;20:19-24.
] [Full text]
Ding G, Xie X, Zhang L. Changes of nitric oxide synthase in hippocampus and cerebellum of the rat following exposure to electromagnetic pulse. Chin J Phys Med 1998;20:81-3.
Divan HA, Kheifets L, Obel C, Olsen J. Prenatal and postnatal exposure to cell phone use and behavioral problems in children. Epidemiology 2008;19:523-9.
Eulitz C, Ullsperger P, Freude G, Elbert T. Mobile phones modulate response patterns of human brain activity. Neuroreport 1998;9:3229-32.
Hamblin DL, Wood AW, Croft RJ, Stough C. Examining the effects of electromagnetic fields emitted by GSM mobile phones on human event-related potentials and performance during an auditory task. Clin Neurophysiol 2004;115:171-8.
Mild KH, Hardell L, Carlberg M. Pooled analysis of two Swedish case-control studies on the use of mobile and cordless telephones and the risk of brain tumours diagnosed during 1997-2003. Int J Occup Saf Ergon 2007;13:63-71.
Hardell L, Mild KH, Påhlson A, Hallquist A. Ionizing radiation, cellular telephones and the risk for brain tumours. Eur J Cancer Prev 2001;10:523-9.
Hardell L, Mild KH, Carlberg M. Case-control study on the use of cellular and cordless phones and the risk for malignant brain tumours. Int J Radiat Biol 2002;78:931-6.
Hardell L, Mild KH, Carlberg M. Further aspects on cellular and cordless telephones and brain tumours. Int J Oncol 2003;22:399-407.
Hardell L, Hansson Mild K, Sandström M, Carlberg M, Hallquist A, Påhlson A. Vestibular schwannoma, tinnitus and cellular telephones. Neuroepidemiology 2003;22:124-9.
Hardell L, Carlberg M, Söderqvist F, Mild KH, Morgan LL. Long-term use of cellular phones and brain tumours: Increased risk associated with use for > or=10 years. Occup Environ Med 2007;64:626-32.
Hardell L, Carlberg M, Söderqvist F, Hansson Mild K. Meta-analysis of long-term mobile phone use and the association with brain tumours. Int J Oncol 2008;32:1097-103.
Hardell L, Carlberg M, Hansson Mild K. Pooled analysis of case-control studies on malignant brain tumours and the use of mobile and cordless phones including living and deceased subjects. Int J Oncol 2011;38:1465-74.
Hartikka H, Heinävaara S, Mäntylä R, Kähärä V, Kurttio P, Auvinen A. Mobile phone use and location of glioma: A case-case analysis. Bioelectromagnetics 2009;30:176-82.
Ingole IV, Ghosh SK. Effect of exposure to radio frequency radiation emitted by cell phone on the developing dorsal root ganglion of chick embryo: A light microscopic study. Nepal Med Coll J 2012;14:337-41.
Inskip PD, Tarone RE, Hatch EE, Wilcosky TC, Shapiro WR, Selker RG, et al.
Cellular-telephone use and brain tumors. N Engl J Med 2001;344:79-86.
Joubert V, Bourthoumieu S, Leveque P, Yardin C. Apoptosis is induced by radiofrequency fields through the caspase-independent mitochondrial pathway in cortical neurons. Radiat Res 2008;169:38-45.
Lebedeva NN, Sulimov AV, Sulimova OP, Kotrovskaya TI, Gailus T. Cellular phone electromagnetic field effects on bioelectric activity of human brain. Crit Rev Biomed Eng 2000;28:323-37.
Loughran SP, McKenzie RJ, Jackson ML, Howard ME, Croft RJ. Individual differences in the effects of mobile phone exposure on human sleep: Rethinking the problem. Bioelectromagnetics 2012;33:86-93.
Mausset AL, de Seze R, Montpeyroux F, Privat A. Effects of radiofrequency exposure on the GABAergic system in the rat cerebellum: Clues from semi-quantitative immunohistochemistry. Brain Res 2001;912:33-46.
Mausset-Bonnefont AL, Hirbec H, Bonnefont X, Privat A, Vignon J, de Sèze R. Acute exposure to GSM 900-MHz electromagnetic fields induces glial reactivity and biochemical modifications in the rat brain. Neurobiol Dis 2004;17:445-54.
Muscat JE, Hinsvark M, Malkin M. Mobile telephones and rates of brain cancer. Neuroepidemiology 2006;27:55-6.
Kim JH, Lee JK, Kim HG, Kim KB, Kim HR. Possible effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic field exposure on central nerve system. Biomol Ther (Seoul) 2019;27:265-75.
Danker-Hopfe H, Dorn H, Bolz T, Peter A, Hansen ML, Eggert T, et al.
Effects of mobile phone exposure (GSM 900 and WCDMA/UMTS) on polysomnography based sleep quality: An intra- and inter-individual perspective. Environ Res 2016;145:50-60.
Arendash GW, Sanchez-Ramos J, Mori T, Mamcarz M, Lin X, Runfeldt M, et al.
Electromagnetic field treatment protects against and reverses cognitive impairment in Alzheimer's disease mice. J Alzheimers Dis 2010;19:191-210.
Son Y, Kim JS, Jeong YJ, Jeong YK, Kwon JH, Choi HD, et al.
Long-term RF exposure on behavior and cerebral glucose metabolism in 5x FAD mice. Neurosci Lett 2018;666:64-9.
Sun ZC, Ge JL, Guo B, Guo J, Hao M, Wu YC, et al.
Extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields facilitate vesicle endocytosis by increasing presynaptic calcium channel expression at a central synapse. Sci Rep 2016;6:21774.
Kim JH, Kim HJ, Yu DH, Kweon HS, Huh YH, Kim HR. Changes in numbers and size of synaptic vesicles of cortical neurons induced by exposure to 835 MHz radiofrequency-electromagnetic field. PLoS One 2017;12:e0186416.
Kim JH, Yu DH, Huh YH, Lee EH, Kim HG, Kim HR. Long-term exposure to 835 MHz RF-EMF induces hyperactivity, autophagy and demyelination in the cortical neurons of mice. Sci Rep 2017;7:41129.
İkinci A, Mercantepe T, Unal D, Erol HS, Şahin A, Aslan A, et al.
Morphological and antioxidant impairments in the spinal cord of male offspring rats following exposure to a continuous 900MHz electromagnetic field during early and mid-adolescence. J Chem Neuroanat 2016;75:99-104.
Bagheri Hosseinabadi M, Khanjani N, Ebrahimi MH, Haji B, Abdolahfard M. The effect of chronic exposure to extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields on sleep quality, stress, depression and anxiety. Electromagn Biol Med 2019;38:96-101.
Lai H, Singh NP. Single- and double-strand DNA breaks in rat brain cells after acute exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation. Int J Radiat Biol 1996;69:513-21.
Eberhardt JL, Persson BR, Brun AE, Salford LG, Malmgren LO. Blood-brain barrier permeability and nerve cell damage in rat brain 14 and 28 days after exposure to microwaves from GSM mobile phones. Electromagn Biol Med 2008;27:215-29.
Bortkiewicz A. A study on the biological effects of exposure mobile-phone frequency EMF. Med Pr 2001;52:101-6.
Eser O, Songur A, Aktas C, Karavelioglu E, Caglar V, Aylak F, et al.
The effect of electromagnetic radiation on the rat brain: An experimental study. Turk Neurosurg 2013;23:707-15.
D'Costa H, Trueman G, Tang L, Abdel-rahman U, Abdel-rahman W, Ong K, et al.
Human brain wave activity during exposure to radiofrequency field emissions from mobile phones. Australas Phys Eng Sci Med 2003;26:162-7.
Kramarenko AV, Tan U. Effects of high-frequency electromagnetic fields on human EEG: A brain mapping study. Int J Neurosci 2003;113:1007-19.
Röösli M, Michel G, Kuehni CE, Spoerri A. Cellular telephone use and time trends in brain tumour mortality in Switzerland from 1969 to 2002. Eur J Cancer Prev 2007;16:77-82.
|This article has been cited by|
||Curing, Properties and EMI Absorption Shielding of Rubber Composites Based on Ferrites and Carbon Fibres
| ||Ján Kruželák, Andrea Kvasnicáková, Michaela Džuganová, Lenka Hašková, Rastislav Dosoudil, Ivan Hudec |
| ||Polymers. 2023; 15(4): 857 |
|[Pubmed] | [DOI]|
||Experimental investigation of absorption shielding efficiency of rubber composites
| ||Ján Kruželák, Andrea Kvasnicáková, Klaudia Hložeková, Rastislav Dosudil, Marek Goralík, Ivan Hudec |
| ||Polymer Bulletin. 2023; |
|[Pubmed] | [DOI]|
||ELECTROMAGNETIC ABSORPTION CHARACTERISTICS OF MANGANESE–ZINC FERRITE AND MULTIWALLED CARBON NANOTUBE–FILLED COMPOSITES BASED ON NBR
| ||Ján Kruželák, Andrea Kvasnicáková, Klaudia Hložeková, Michaela Džuganová, Jana Gregorová, Jarmila Vilcáková, Marek Goralík, Ján Hronkovic, Jozef Preto, Ivan Hudec |
| ||Rubber Chemistry and Technology. 2022; 95(2): 300 |
|[Pubmed] | [DOI]|
||Meta-Analysis of EMF-Induced Pollution by COVID-19 in Virtual Teaching and Learning With an Artificial Intelligence Perspective
| ||Sanjita Das,Shilpa Srivastava,Aprna Tripathi,Saumya Das |
| ||International Journal of Web-Based Learning and Teaching Technologies. 2022; 17(4): 1 |
|[Pubmed] | [DOI]|
||Smartphone Use and Child Neurology
| ||ChidiebereEmmanuel Okechukwu |
| ||Neurology India. 2021; 69(6): 1896 |
|[Pubmed] | [DOI]|
||Mechanical, Thermal, Electrical Characteristics and EMI Absorption Shielding Effectiveness of Rubber Composites Based on Ferrite and Carbon Fillers
| ||Ján Kruželák,Andrea Kvasnicáková,Klaudia Hložeková,Roderik Plavec,Rastislav Dosoudil,Marek Goralík,Jarmila Vilcáková,Ivan Hudec |
| ||Polymers. 2021; 13(17): 2937 |
|[Pubmed] | [DOI]|
||Antimicrobial activity of rosemary leaf extracts and efficacy of ethanol extract against testicular damage caused by 50-Hz electromagnetic field in albino rats
| ||Hanaa S. S. Gazwi,Magda E. Mahmoud,Moaz M. Hamed |
| ||Environmental Science and Pollution Research. 2020; |
|[Pubmed] | [DOI]|
||Does the use of mobile phone affect male fertility? A mini-review
| ||ChidiebereEmmanuel Okechukwu |
| ||Journal of Human Reproductive Sciences. 2020; 13(3): 174 |
|[Pubmed] | [DOI]|