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 Table of Contents  
REVIEW ARTICLE
Year : 2020  |  Volume : 10  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 41-50

Disability brief in single chapter and bangladesh perspectives: A rapid overview


1 WISH2Action Project, Handicap International, Kurigram, Bangladesh
2 Unit of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine and Defense Health, Universiti Pertahanan Nasional Malaysia (National Defense University of Malaysia), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

Date of Submission26-Jan-2020
Date of Acceptance17-Apr-2020
Date of Web Publication13-May-2020

Correspondence Address:
Mainul Haque
Faculty of Medicine and Defence Health, Universiti Pertahanan Nasional Malaysia (National Defence University of Malaysia), Kem Perdana Sungai Besi, 57000 Kuala Lumpur
Malaysia
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/AIHB.AIHB_6_20

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  Abstract 


Disability is a complex issue. The concept of disability evolves over time from a charity to the right-based approach. It is a tremendous public health concern worldwide. We cannot achieve Sustainable Development Goals by leaving behind the persons with disabilities. In this article, readers will know the evolving basic concepts of disability, disability models and so on. Persons with disabilities faced unjustified discrimination in society. They are excluded from education and employment opportunities. This group of people faced great difficulty in accessing primary health-care services. Persons with disabilities are the biggest minority group in the world. They are neglected in the family ground to the community, community to the national level and national level to global ground. This manuscript primarily focuses on disability in Bangladeshi perspectives. Readers can find existing legal frameworks to protect the rights of people with disabilities in Bangladesh. The various types of disabilities considered by the legal frameworks of Bangladesh. They will also know the current employment opportunities of persons with disabilities in Bangladesh and the economic costs of disability in Bangladesh.

Keywords: Bangladesh, BD, disability, infirmity, perspectives, viewpoints


How to cite this article:
ME, Haque M. Disability brief in single chapter and bangladesh perspectives: A rapid overview. Adv Hum Biol 2020;10:41-50

How to cite this URL:
ME, Haque M. Disability brief in single chapter and bangladesh perspectives: A rapid overview. Adv Hum Biol [serial online] 2020 [cited 2021 Oct 25];10:41-50. Available from: https://www.aihbonline.com/text.asp?2020/10/2/41/284287




  Introduction Top


Disability is a cross-cutting issue worldwide. One billion people or 15% of the world population are experiencing some forms of disability.[1] According to the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (UNCRPD) (2006), if a person suffering from long-term physical, mental, intellectual or sensory impairments and if these impairments impede his/her active participation in society, the person can be referred to as persons with disabilities (UNCRPD, 2006).[2]

Fifteen percentage of the world population live with disabilities. 80% of persons with disabilities live in developing countries. 20% of the world's poorest people have some kinds of disability. 30% of street youths have some types of disability [Table 1]. 90% of children with disabilities in developing countries do not attend school. Globally, literacy rate among adults with disabilities is only 3%. Only 35% of total persons with disabilities are involved in income-generating activities.[3] A brief illustration of the percentage of disabilities is depicted in [Table 2].[4] Although, low- and middle income countries (LMICs) bear the enormous load of disability, additionally, disability related ghettoized data enhances furthermore challenge for these countries.[4]
Table 1: Depicted percentage disabilities issue around the globe

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Table 2: Prevalence of disability in selected countries

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Disability prevalence trends among women follow almost similar directions from America to the Western Pacific regions [Figure 1]. On the other hand, Africa experiences more prevalence of disability in both male and female groups.[5] In current Bangladesh, the life standard of people with disabilities (PWD) is slowly but steadily changing due to government and nongovernment organisations' combined efforts at the community level. Still, there are many more areas that can be improved, considering the accessibility of persons with disabilities.{Figure 1}

The types of disabilities, according to the Persons with Disabilities Rights and Protection Act 2013, are as follows:[6]

  1. Autism of autism spectrum disorders (ASD)
  2. Physical disability
  3. Mental illness leading to disability
  4. Visual disability
  5. Speech disability
  6. Intellectual disability
  7. Hearing disability
  8. Deafblindness
  9. Cerebral palsy
  10. Down syndrome
  11. Multiple disability
  12. Other disability.[6]


Autism

ASDs are a nexus of developmental disorders of the brain. The term includes conditions such as autism and Asperger's syndrome. These disorders are characterised by limiting verbal and nonverbal communication, repetition of individual acts or behaviours of the same kind of limit, difficulties in social interaction and communication, unusual body gestures, etc., The symptoms of ASD usually appear within 6 months to 3 years of a child being born.[6],[7]

Physical

We can consider a person with a physical disability if he/she has the following characteristics: do not have one or both hands and feet; any side or foot is entirely or partially unconscious or structurally defective or debilitating to such extent that it partially or entirely disrupts daily normal functioning or normal movement or use capacity and lack of physical balance due to neurological dysfunction.[6]

Mental illness leading to disability

If a person's daily life is interrupted due to schizophrenia or psychiatric problems of the same kind (such as clinical depression, bipolar disorder, posttraumatic stress, phobia related mental illness), he/she will be considered to have mental illness leading to disability.[6]

Visual impaired

Visual impairment can be classified into three categories: complete visual impairment, partial visual impairment and low vision.

Completely visual impaired

If the person is suffering from complete blindness or if his/her visual field is <20°. Despite using appropriate lenses, visual acuity is <6/60 or 20/200.

Partially visual impaired

One eye is a wholly unsighted and consequential disruption of daily life.

Low vision: Can be seen partially or less in both eyes. Despite using appropriate lenses, visual acuity is in between 6/18 or 20/60 and 6/60 or 20/200. The visual field is between 20° and 40°.[6]

Speech disability

A person can be identified as a person with a speech disability if he/she has the following characteristics: unable to speak altogether; limitation in deciding the essential words in a simple conversation and expressing in clear pronunciation with the required amount of tone and problems with voice and speech or speech processing due to different reasons such as congenital defects.[6]

Intellectual disability

A person can be identified as intellectually disabled if he/she possesses the following characteristics: significant limitations on age-appropriate activity; restriction on mental activity and limitations on routine work-related skills. IQ is lower than the average level.[6]

Hearing disability

If a person is incapable of hearing sounds below 60 decibels (dB), he/she can be referred to as a person with a hearing disability. It can be classified into complete, partial deafness and hard of hearing impairment.

The three kinds of hearing disabilities are:

  1. Complete deafness: If the person unable to hear in both ears
  2. Partial deafness: If the person is unable to hear in one ear
  3. Hard of hearing: If the person can partially perceive sounds in both ears and sometimes totally unable to understand sounds.[6]


Hearing visual disability

If a person has a partial or complete impairment of hearing and vision and, at the same time, experiencing difficulties in communication, development and learning, he/she will be considered as a person with a hearing visual disability. Hearing visual disability can be classified as:

  1. Moderate-to-severe hearing impairment and a significant degree of visual impairment
  2. Moderate-to-severe hearing impairment, a substantial degree of visual impairment and, in addition, other types of disability
  3. Features due to visual and hearing process problems
  4. Gradual worsening of visual and hearing impairment.[6]


Cerebral palsy

Cerebral palsy results from brain damage and leads to functional incapability. Cerebral palsy patients have abnormalities in general movements and demeanor following an injury or disease to an immature brain that often disrupt daily activities. The muscles remain very tight or loose. Anomalies or limitations in the movement of the hands and feet. Lack of balance or low balance in normal flow. Impaired sensory capacities. These patients frequently have extremely limited behavioural and communication skill.[6]

Down syndrome

Down syndrome is classified as a genetic disorder, which corresponds to the presence of an additional chromosome in the twenty-one-chromosome pair. It is characterised by mild-to-moderate impedance of intellect, weak muscular capacity, stunted, mongoloid face, etc.[6]

Multiple disabilities

If more than one or various types of impairment are observed in a person, it can be referred to as many disabilities.[6]

Models of disability

Disability is a huge and complex issue of discussion. How disability issues are perceived and people responded according to the perception are represented by the models of disability. Models of disability are required to establish a definition of disability considering different essential perspectives. It helps in the identification of responsible factors of disability. The models guide the policymaker to formulate and implement policy under-pining disability issues. Sometimes, models can provoke prejudice and discrimination towards persons with disabilities.[8],[9],[10]

The models of disability can be in five categories

Charity model of disability

The charity model of disability focuses on the individual with disabilities. This is a scion of the medical model. The base logic comes from the medical model, but it has an expanded view on disability. In this model, disability is considered as an issue of tragedy and compassion. Disability is regarded as a physical problem in the charity model. It promotes that other citizens should feel sympathy for persons with disabilities as it is a tragedy. It also provides the message that we should inspire by the achievement of the persons with disabilities. Discriminatory and disgraceful words such as 'abnormal', 'the disabled', 'able-bodied' and 'handicapped' are used in this model. Imrie (1998) opined that Western cities have an apartheid design by which they want to see an 'able-bodied society' and a 'society of disabled'. This apartheid design comes from the charity model.[8],[9],[10],[11],[12]

Medical model

According to the medical model, disability or deviance is measured by comparing the limitation with the healthy state. In a sense, it is a normative model. This model considered that disability is caused by disease or injury and solvable by treatment and rehabilitation. The medical model ignores the impacts of environmental and social barriers on persons with disabilities. Treatment is the core concept of this model. This model promotes the institutionalisation of disability and highly recommends the involvement of expert personnel in diagnosis to care for persons with disabilities. It is not appropriate in resource lacking setup, and at the same time, implication of this model need more resources (workforce, money, manoeuvre, etc.).[8],[12]

The social model

This model puts emphasis on social factors of disability. It contemplates impairment as a by-product of the negative social environment. This negative environment prevents persons with disabilities from active participation in society. According to the Union of Physically Impaired Against Segregation, disability is a socially constructed disadvantage, which promotes a distinctive form of social ill-treatment. The social model promotes changing attitudes towards persons with disabilities, positive practices and policies towards persons with disabilities. However, critics argued that the personal impact of disability is ignored in this model.[8],[9],[10],[12]

The economic model

This model of disability views disability from an economic analytical point of view. It analyses the economic impacts of the limitations of PWD in commercial activities. Ensuring the dignity of persons with disabilities, reasonable accommodations are the central concerns of this model. This model is followed by different governments to formulate disability policy in the respective countries. The economic model exclusively considers disability in terms of cost–benefit analysis. Sometimes, critics argued that this model neglects other essential factors into account.[8],[12]

Human rights model

Persons with disabilities have equal fundamental human rights as others. According to this model, disability is defined as a right-based approach. Human rights model is formulated based on the UNCRPD 2006.[8]

The convention on the rights of persons with disabilities

In 2006, 'The Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities' was adopted as an international human rights treaty by the United Nations General Assembly. The Convention focuses on the disability issue through a broad lens and wants to ensure the rights of PWD in every aspect of life. The Convention follows the core principles of the Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action that 'all human rights are universal, indivisible, interdependent, and interrelated. Ensuring the rights and dignity of persons with disabilities is the core concern of the convention'.

Articles of The United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (UNCRPD).[13],[14],[15]

The Convention has a total of 50 articles. In these articles, states parties address the purpose of UNCRPD, its principles, the obligations undertaken by states parties and several specific measures intended to give effect through concrete actions to the laws of the Convention [Table 3].
Table 3: United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities articles at a glance

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Links between Sustainable Development Goals and articles of the UNCRPD

Goal one of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) is ending poverty in all its forms everywhere. That goal is in line with all Convention articles of UNCRPD. Goal two of SDG is ending hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition and promote sustainable agriculture. That goal incorporates Article-28 of UNCRPD that denotes the adequate standard of living and social protection. Ensuring good health and well-being for all at all ages is the goal number three of SDG. This goal incorporates with UNCRPD article-10 that describes the right to life, article-11 describes of risk and humanitarian emergencies, article-23 describes for home and the family, article-25 and 26 illustrates habilitation and rehabilitation. The fourth goal of SDG and article-24 of UNCRPD both are focusing on inclusive, equitable quality education. Goal five of SDG tells about gender equality and women empowerment that is in line with all articles of UNCRPD. Ensuring availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all is the sixth goal of SDG that incorporates with article-28 of UNCRPD that states adequate standard of living and social protection. Ensuring affordable and clean energy is the seventh goal of SDG that is in line with article-28 of UNCRPD that is focusing on an adequate standard of living and social protection. Ensuring decent work and economic growth is the eighth goal of SDG that is linked with the article-27 of UNCRPD that is also emplacing on ensuring work and employment opportunities for persons with disabilities. Core issues of goal nine (industry, innovation, infrastructure) of SDG have a link with article-9, article-20 and article-21 of UNCRPD. Article-9 focuses on accessibility, article-20 on personal mobility and article-20 on freedom of expression and opinion and access to information. Goal ten of SDG and article-5 of UNCRPD are linked with each other because both are focusing on reducing inequalities/promoting equalities and nondiscrimination. Creating sustainable cities and communities is the eleventh goal of SDG, which has a link with article-9, article-11, article-29, and article-30 of UNCRPD. Article-9 discusses accessibility issues. Article-11 talks about situations of risk and humanitarian emergencies. Article-19 discusses living independently and being included in the community. Article-29 focuses on participation in political and public life. Article-30 focuses on the involvement in cultural life, recreation, leisure activities and participation in sports. Goal thirteen of SDG focuses on comprehensive actions to prevent deteriorating effects of climate change, which is in line with the article twenty-five of UNCRPD that focuses on ensuring health issues of PWD. Securing peace, justice and strong institutions are the goal number sixteen of SDG, which have a link with articles 4, 10, 13, 15, 16, 18, 29 of UNCRPD. Article-4 focuses on general obligations. Article-10 focuses on the right to life. Article-13 focuses on access to justice. Article-15 focuses on freedom from torture or cruelty, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment. Article-16 focuses on freedom from exploitation, violence and abuse. Article-18 emphasises the liberty of movement and nationality. Finally, article-29 highlights participation in political and public life.

Goal number seventeen of SDG and article-32 are in the same line. Both are focusing on partnership and international co-operation for a better environment.[16]

National disability policy 1995

The policy of 1995 was created based on the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Disabled Persons (1975) and United Nations Standard Rules on the Equalization of Opportunities for Persons with Disabilities (1993). This policy was thefirst-ever national policy concerning disability issues. That was an excellent initiative by the contemporary Government of Bangladesh to ensure the rights of persons with disabilities. There are some flaws in the National Disability Policy of 1995. The policy only focuses on historical aspects of impairment in determining the definition of disability. Even the above mentioned public system failed to define disability in a comprehensive approach. The policymaker used the word 'weak' personnel in describing rehabilitation. Persons with disabilities need medical care as well as rehabilitation care. There is no direction concerning the co-ordination of medical and rehabilitation care in Bangladesh.[17]

Bangladesh Persons with Disability Welfare Act, 2001

Protecting the rights and dignity of persons with disabilities and ensure their participation in National and Social context is the general objective of the law. According to the law, a person can be identified as persons with disability if the person is physically crippled or mentally impaired due to inborn causes or due to an accident or due to maltreatment and thus impairments impede a healthy life. Critics argue that there is a disgraceful word in the definition, and the explanation is not a comprehensive one. The main principles of introducing the law are as follows: creating evidence-based data on disability; promoting preventive measures and ensuring adequate care utilities for persons with disabilities from the health-care centres at an affordable cost.

  • Ensuring inclusive education
  • Promoting skill development training for persons with disabilities
  • Ensuring an inclusive job environment
  • Providing nutrients for persons with disabilities
  • Introducing credit-support programmes for rehabilitation
  • Providing inclusive transport and movement facilities.


There is need of mass media campaign to create a harmonious atmosphere for persons with disabilities. In the law, there is a genre to introduce health-care services and ensure adequate medical supplies and nutrients for persons with disabilities. However, the critics argue that this genre promotes the institutionalisation of care for persons with disabilities. In the law, there is a genre to introduce financial support to cover rehabilitation costs for persons with disabilities. It also promotes the establishment of a rehabilitation centre, arranging vocational training for persons with disabilities, and identifies the right job placement area for them and recruits them according to the skills they acquired. In the law, it is mentioned that there will be reserve quota in the job sector, especially in the government departments' jobs, that critics argue that it is a kind of positive discrimination in society. The act when placed in the parliament as a bill till then Government of Bangladesh had no data on an exact number of persons with disabilities in the country that is also mentioned in the law. Critics argue that that might be a significant issue of debate on how you can create a bill without knowing the exact required data on persons with disabilities. The critics also argue that this law focuses mainly on the charity and medical model of disability.[18]

Protection of Persons with Neurodevelopmental Disability Trust Act, 2013

The primary purpose of the act is to establish the rights of persons with neurodevelopmental disabilities. This act was signed by the President on 10 November 2013. According to the law, neurodevelopmental disorders are classified into four categories.

  1. Autism or ASD
  2. Down syndrome
  3. Intellectual disorder
  4. Cerebral palsy.


Protection of Persons with Neurodevelopmental Disability Trust Act, 2013, promotes the establishment of a trust called Neurodevelopmental Disability Protection Trust.

Aims and objectives of the trust

(1) As far as possible, to give them physical, mental and financial support to the person with the neurodevelopmental disorder. (2) To provide the appropriate knowledge and education to them. (3) To empower them in society by ensuring useful inclusion.

Proposed functions of the trust

  1. Identification of the persons with a neurodevelopmental disability and determine their degree of severity
  2. Ensuring safe inclusion of person with the neurodevelopmental disorder within their own family
  3. Provide support to the organisations who are providing or eager to provide necessary
  4. Services including skill development to the persons with neurodevelopmental disability
  5. Provide support to those persons with neurodevelopmental disability
  6. Who are out of their family
  7. If a person with neurodevelopmental disability die, provide the necessary support to their family, if necessary
  8. Ensure comfort to the persons with neurodevelopmental disability to establish their rights, and their full, productive and equal participation in the social activities with others
  9. Promotion of public–private partnership for the benefit of the persons with neurodevelopmental disability
  10. Organise special or integrated education for the persons with neurodevelopmental disability
  11. Collect, compile and publish evidence-based data on persons with neurodevelopmental disability
  12. Ensure health care to persons with a neurodevelopmental disability suffering for the long term
  13. Take the necessary steps to establish a unit for the treatment of the persons with neurodevelopmental disability in hospitals across the country
  14. Ensuring food security and nutrition for the destitute persons with neurodevelopmental Disability
  15. Ensure inclusive sports for the persons with neurodevelopmental disability
  16. Provide support for the employment of the persons with neurodevelopmental disability
  17. Take the required steps to ensure the rights of the persons with neurodevelopmental disability to inherit properties
  18. Build shelter homes for the persons with a neurodevelopmental disability
  19. Formulate policy on selection of guardians and trustees, in the event of the death of the parents and guardians of the persons with a neurodevelopmental disability
  20. Policy formation and implementation to ensure financial support, from the fund to the destitute persons with a neurodevelopmental disability
  21. Perform such other relevant functions as directed by the Government and the Advisory Council from time to time.[19]


Persons with disabilities rights and protection act 2013

  1. Rights of persons with disabilities


    1. The rights to survive and fully evolve
    2. Equal legal recognition and access to justice in all cases
    3. The legacy of succession
    4. reedom of expression and information access
    5. The right to get legal guardian, right to establish a marital relationship, right to form a family
    6. Accessibility right
    7. The right to participate fully and effectively in social, economic and state activities considering the type of disability
    8. The right to participate in integrated education considering the availability of opportunity at all levels
    9. The right to employment at government and non-government organisations
    10. Acceptance of disability in work life is the right of the person to be employed or to rehabilitate properly
    11. The right to be protected from oppression. Right to have the benefits of a safe and healthy environment
    12. The right to have the highest quality of health care
    13. The right to have reasonable accommodation in academic institutes and workplaces
    14. The right to be united in the life of society by gaining competence
    15. Persons with disabilities who are dependent on the parent or family and, unfortunately, they become separated from the parent or family have the rights to proper accommodation and rehabilitation
    16. The right to participate in culture, entertainment, tourism, leisure sports activities
    17. The right to adopt gesture as the first language
    18. The right to privacy of personal information
    19. The right to formation and management of associations
    20. The right to receiving national identity, inclusion in the voter list, voting and participation in the election
    21. Any other reasons as determined by the government in the official gazette.


Analysis of cons of the Persons with Disabilities Rights and Protection Act 2013

The act focuses more on bureaucracy. It promotes the formation of a different committee to ensure the rights of persons with disabilities. However, not mentioned the mechanism by which community can engage with those committees. There is no provision of representation from persons with disabilities or inclusion of disability experts (from medical or rehabilitation background) in these committees. Offenses against PWDs are a must punishable issue and need prompt action. According to recent statistics, about 2.2 million criminal cases are pending at this moment.[20] It would be the best option to create a separate forum with a different set of judges to deal with matters under the proposed act. There are no special provisions made for women with disabilities. They are more vulnerable among the vulnerable in this patriarchal society. They suffer from different types of discrimination. Therefore, they need proper deliberation in their daily life and especially, it is crucial in case of legal matters.[21]

Disability prevalence in Bangladesh

There is no standard unique definition of disability. At the same time, unique screening tools are also not available to us. For these reasons, it is difficult to diagnose the disability. There are some social factors, such as sometimes people are disinclined to identify their family members as persons with disabilities. There are few statistics on the prevalence of disability in Bangladesh. These are as follows:

  1. According to the World Health Organization 2003 survey, there are 16.2% of people with functional difficulties in our country. Handicap International and NFOWD 2005 survey declares that there are 5.6% of persons with disabilities in Bangladesh
  2. In 2006, the Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics and UNICEF conducted a survey. They said that 17.5% of children are suffering from functional difficulties or disabilities due to developmental problems. Participants age limit was 2–9 years of that survey
  3. In 2010, the Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics conducted the Household Income and Expenditure Survey. The survey expressed Bangladesh has 9.1% of people with functional limitations
  4. In 2010, ICDDR, B in collaboration with Nossal Institute for Global Health (Centre for Eye Research Australia), conducted a rapid assessment of disability. They found that 8.9% of people are persons with disabilities in Bangladesh
  5. Finally, we can end the discussion by mentioning the 'Household and Population Census' conducted by the 'Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics' in 2011. In that census, BBS said that 1.4% of people are a person with a disability in Bangladesh.[22]


Economic costs of disability

Disability impedes financial contribution. This lack of participation tends to reduce economic output from a person with disabilities. The cost of disability is measured by calculating the net economic value of impairment. The net economic loss of disability refers to a measured extent of reduction in economic output. In Bangladesh, the estimated financial cost of disability is 1.18 billion per year, and as a percentage of gross domestic product (GDP), it is 1.74%. In low-income countries, the lack of affordability creates a significant barrier [Figure 2] in health and rehabilitation care for persons with disabilities.[5]
Figure 2: Reasons for lack of health and rehabilitation in case of persons with disabilities in LMICs.

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Direct costs of disability

Persons with disabilities receive benefit scheme not only in Bangladesh but also around the globe where it is small in amount or enough. Another critical issue is still disability care is institutionalised that creates a cost. These two costs are considered during the estimation of direct costs of disability. Persons with disabilities must pay some additional costs to have the equal standard of living of persons without limitations. A study conducted in 1999 on 17 OECD countries identified that benefit schemes in these countries for persons with disabilities correspond to 2.73% GDP and 11% of total public social expenditure. One very crucial issue is persons with disabilities must pay additional costs if they want to enjoy an equal standard of living like others. They also must pay extra fees to have equitable health services for assistive devices and for the purpose of transportation. These costs will also be considered as direct costs of disability. A person with a disability must spend 11%–69% of his/her income to achieve the same standard of living like others in the UK. Indirect costs of disability caused financial loss including loss of productivity due to limitations of work-force and loss of productivity of the caregivers as their principal time involved in care giving. In Bangladesh, around 25% of persons with disabilities need co-operation of caregivers for work and mobility purposes. In 1998, the cost associated with lost productivity in Canada was 5.8%–7.5% of GDP. In 1998, Canada faced loss associated with lost productivity that accounts for 5.8%–7.5% of their GDP. In 2004, the percentage of GDP lost due to disability was 4.1% in the case of Japan, 9.3% for Brazil and 6.9% for India (Mets, 2004).[23]

Job opportunities for persons with disabilities in Bangladesh

Persons with disabilities faced enormous challenges to a job in Bangladesh. There is a significant relationship between disability and poverty and lack of education. The difficulties of disability confined the person with a disability within the poverty cycle. Our education system is not very friendly to persons with disabilities. Poverty and lack of education create a significant barrier to get desired jobs in Bangladesh. Most of our workplaces are not disability friendly workplace considering attitudes and physical structures. Center for Services and Information on Disability conducted a study titled 'Employment Situation of People with Disabilities in Bangladesh.' They found that among 452 persons with disabilities earn <500 takas per month. 68% of respondents said that they have nothing to save at the end of the month. The retention rate in the workplace for persons with disabilities is almost a hundred per cent, and these specially abled persons work very sincerely in their workstations. That denotes that if we can create a harmonious working environment for them, then we can achieve a sizeable productive workforce. We need a national inclusion strategy as well as a comprehensive skill development strategy for persons with disabilities in our country. Creating job opportunities for PWD is their constitutional right as others.[24],[25],[26],[27],[28]


  Conclusion Top


Persons with disabilities have the right to lead a life with dignity. They have the right to find and form family, the right to have health care, the right to have accessible education and employment. They are in a different part of society. We cannot deserve a culture of leaving anyone behind without improving their standard of life. We cannot promote the slogan 'leave anyone behind' without them, and it will not be possible to achieve SDGs without improving their quality of life. For the successful inclusion of these lives, we need to move for a comprehensive plan where family, community, state parties, and other stakeholders will work together.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
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    Figures

  [Figure 9], [Figure 2]
 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3]



 

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