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Year : 2020  |  Volume : 10  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 51-59

ATM and ATR checkpoint kinase pathways: A concise review

1 Department of QC Analytical, Intas Pharmaceutical Ltd., (Biopharma Division), Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India
2 Department of Biotechnology, NIPER-Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India
3 Department of Pharmacology, Karnavati School of Dentistry, Karnavati University, Gandhinagar, Gujarat, India

Correspondence Address:
Neelam Chauhan
Department of Pharmacology, Karnavati School of Dentistry, Karnavati University, 907/A, Uvarsad, Gandhinagar - 382 422, Gujarat
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/AIHB.AIHB_78_19

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The ataxia-telangiectasia-mutated (ATM) and ataxia-telangiectasia-mutated and Rad3-related (ATR) DNA damage repair pathways serve as the surveillance system which keeps a check on different types of DNA damages and lesions, which includes DNA single-strand breaks, DNA double-strand breaks and other aberrant structures such as arrested replication forks during replication. The ATM and ATR kinases belong to PIKK class of kinases which activate a large number of downstream mediator and effector molecules. The main classes of effector kinases activated by ATM and ATR are checkpoint kinase 2 and checkpoint kinase 1, respectively. ATR works primarily with the RAD9-RAD1-HUS1 (9-1-1) complex, whereas ATM works with the MRE11– RAD50–NBS1 complex. Together ATM and ATR kinase protects the cells' genomic integrity and prevents random mutations to be carried into their progeny.

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