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 Table of Contents  
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2021  |  Volume : 11  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 245-249

Awareness of osteoarthritis among general population in Sudair, Saudi Arabia


1 Department of Internal Medicine, College of Medicine, Majmaah University, Al Majmaah, Saudi Arabia
2 Department of College of Medicine, Majmaah University, Al Majmaah, Saudi Arabia
3 Internal Medicine Resident, King Khalid Hospital Majmaah, Saudi Arabia
4 Community Medicine and Public Health, College of Medicine, Majmaah University, Saudi Arabia

Date of Submission27-Mar-2021
Date of Acceptance06-Jun-2021
Date of Web Publication04-Sep-2021

Correspondence Address:
Fehaid Alanazi
Department of Medicine, College of Medicine, Majmaah University, Al Majmaah 11952
Saudi Arabia
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/aihb.aihb_46_21

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  Abstract 


Introduction: Osteoarthritis (OA) is a chronic disorder and the most common form of arthritis. OA leads to the breakdown of tissues and cartilage and the loss of combined function, causing symptoms of pain, stiffness, reduced physical function and limited movement. Incidence rates vary according to region and ethnicity. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study involving the general population of Sudair was conducted to assess the awareness and knowledge levels of OA from June to December 2020. In all, 387 residents participated, and data were collected using a pre-tested questionnaire. Data were analysed by SPSS, and appropriate statistical tests such as One-sample t-test, Chi-squared and Fisher's exact tests were applied for quantitative and qualitative variables. Results: Almost 80% of the sample belonged to the age group of 18–50 years. More than 50% were men. Overall, 199 (51.42%) participants had moderate knowledge of OA, 134 (34.63%) had poor knowledge, and only 14% had adequate knowledge. Men had significantly poorer knowledge than women (P = 0.018). Participants with a previous history and family history of OA had significantly more knowledge than the healthy participants with previous experience of OA (P < 0.001). Conclusion: The majority of the participants who lived in Sudair had moderate knowledge of OA. Previous knowledge of OA because of previous diagnosis or family history of OA led to improved awareness of OA.

Keywords: Awareness, knowledge, osteoarthritis, Saudi population


How to cite this article:
Alanazi F, Alhokel KH, Alsaadoon SA, Almutairi AJ, Alshammary FH, Alqabbani AA, Kutbi HA, Sami W. Awareness of osteoarthritis among general population in Sudair, Saudi Arabia. Adv Hum Biol 2021;11:245-9

How to cite this URL:
Alanazi F, Alhokel KH, Alsaadoon SA, Almutairi AJ, Alshammary FH, Alqabbani AA, Kutbi HA, Sami W. Awareness of osteoarthritis among general population in Sudair, Saudi Arabia. Adv Hum Biol [serial online] 2021 [cited 2021 Oct 26];11:245-9. Available from: https://www.aihbonline.com/text.asp?2021/11/3/245/325576




  Introduction Top


Osteoarthritis (OA) is a chronic disorder and the most common form of arthritis. OA leads to the breakdown of tissues and cartilage and loss of combined function, causing symptoms of pain, stiffness, reduced physical function and limited movement.[1] OA can be primary or secondary, depending on its cause. Both types lead to articular cartilage degeneration.[2]

Worldwide, the prevalence and incidence rates of OA vary across studies. Globally, approximately 240 million people are affected by OA[3], including over 30 million in the United States; the prevalence has increased from 21 million in 1990 and 27 million in 2005.[4] The 2016 Global Burden of Disease study estimated that the global incidence of hip and knee OA is 199 cases per 100,000.[5] Incidence rates vary according to region and ethnicity.[6],[7] In addition, Al-Arfaj showed that the prevalence of knee OA in Saudi Arabian patients was 53.3% among men and 60.9% among women.[8]

Multiple risk factors have been linked to OA, such as demographics features (age, sex, genetics, joint injury and anatomic factors of joint shape)[9] and lifestyle factors (obesity, occupation and physical activity).[10],[11] The most commonly affected joints are the knees, hands and hips.[12] OA is diagnosed mainly through clinical and radiological studies.[13] Management of OA consists of two types of modalities: The first type is conservative management, which includes non-pharmacological exercise within physiotherapy and weight loss;[14] pharmacological treatment with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, acetaminophen, glucosamine; and intra-articular injections of either corticosteroids or hyaluronic acid.[15] The second type is surgical intervention, which is considered when conservative treatment fails. As part of our mission at the College of Medicine-Majmaah University to enhance community partnership and community awareness, this study aimed to assess the levels of knowledge and awareness of OA in the general population in Sudair, Saudi Arabia.


  Materials and Methods Top


A cross-sectional study involving the general population of Sudair was conducted to assess the awareness and knowledge levels of OA. The following regions were included: AlMajmaah, Hautat Sudair, Tumair, Alghat, Al-Zulfi and Jalajil. Adults over the age of 18 were invited to participate in the study through an online survey. Data were collected for 6 months from June to December 2020. The study proposal was approved by the research ethics committee of Majmaah University. The responses to the online questionnaires were collected in an Excel spreadsheet and exported to the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) file.

The questionnaire contained 20 items based on previous studies and theories, namely a study conducted in Malaysia. It included questions on socio-demographic features, such as sex, age, education level, occupation and other questions focusing on general awareness and knowledge about OA. Some questions had answer options of yes, no and don't know.

Ethical considerations

This research was approved by the ethical review committee of Majmaah University, KSA vides reference on MUREC June. 10/COM-2020/32-2.

Statistical analysis

IBM SPSS version 26 (IBM Corp., Armonk, NY, USA) was used to analyze the data. Qualitative data were expressed as frequencies and percentages, and quantitative data, as mean + standard deviation A one-sample t-test was used to evaluate the participants' mean OA knowledge score at a threshold value of 50%. Pearson's, Chi-squared and Fisher's exact tests were applied to observe associations between qualitative variables. A P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.


  Results Top


The data were collected from 387 participants. Almost 80% belonged to the age group of 18–50 years, followed by 51–65 years (68, 17.6%), with only 3.4% aged above 65 years. More than 50% of the participants were men (women, n = 176, 45.5%). The majority were residing in AlMajmaah (222, 57.4%), followed by Hautat Sudair (119, 30.7%), Tumair (5.2%) and a small percentage in Alghat and Jalajil. Most of the participants had University degrees (276, 71.3%), around 21% and 6.2% had high school education and middle school education, respectively, and 7 (1.8%) did not receive school education. More than 50% of the participants were employed, 85 (22%) were unemployed, 51 (13.2%) had retired and 43 (11.1%) were students. The majority of the participants (314, 81.1%) had jobs that included lifting heavy weights or too much movement, and approximately 80% had never been previously diagnosed with OA; 318 (82.2%) had heard of OA, whereas 263 (68%) had relatives and friends who had OA [Table 1].
Table 1: Sociodemographic characteristics and general information regarding osteoarthritis (n=387)

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The average OA score for 20 items was 6.22 + 2.18, the minimum and maximum scores were 0 and 11, respectively. On converting the scores to percentages, the participants had moderate knowledge (51.83%) about OA. The results of the one-sample t-test confirmed that the participants had moderate knowledge about OA (P = 0.043). This was achieved by comparing the DK percentage score (51.83%) with the threshold value of 50%. The percentages of correct answers for each item are presented in [Table 2].
Table 2: Participants' knowledge of osteoarthritis (n=387)

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Overall, the majority (199, 51.42%) of the participants had moderate knowledge about OA, 134 (34.63%) had poor knowledge and only 14% had adequate knowledge about OA [Figure 1].
Figure 1: Participants Knowledge about osteoarthritis.

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[Table 3] shows a significant association between sex and knowledge about OA; men had significantly poorer knowledge about OA than women (P = 0.018). However, knowledge about OA was not significantly associated with residence (P = 0.183), age (P = 0.274), an education level (P = 0.431), monthly income (P = 0.208) and nature of the job (P = 0.538). [Table 4] shows that participants who were previously diagnosed with OA had significantly more knowledge than those who were not (P < 0.001). Knowledge was significantly associated with previously having heard about OA (P < 0.001); the participants who had poor, moderate and adequate knowledge had not heard about it before. Participants whose relatives or friends had OA had significantly more knowledge than their counterparts (P < 0.001).
Table 3: Association between osteoarthritis knowledge and socio-demographic data (n=387)

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Table 4: Association between osteoarthritis knowledge and general information (n=387)

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  Discussion Top


This cross-sectional study aimed to determine the general population's awareness of OA in Sudair, Saudi Arabia. Of the 387 participants surveyed, the majority (199, 51.42%) had moderate knowledge about OA, 134 (34.63%) had poor knowledge, and 14% had adequate knowledge about OA. Participants aged between 18 and 50 years and those with university-level education were the main respondents, and this could be attributed to the method of data collection using an electronic survey. These findings are similar to those of another study conducted on the general population in Aseer.[16]

Most of the participants had moderate knowledge about OA, with only 14% having adequate knowledge about OA, which is much less compared to a study carried out in Jeddah. This can be attributed to the inclusion of people from rural areas in our study, whereas the study by Algahtani et al. recruited only urban residents from Jeddah city.[17] The majority of participants are aware and read about OA, and only 17% of them were unaware. These findings are in concordance with other studies. Thus recent literature on OA recommends the importance of counselling the patients by orthopaedics, which in turn can mitigate the severity of OA symptoms by non-pharmacological therapies.[18]

A significant association was noted between sex and knowledge of participants about OA; men had significantly poorer knowledge about OA than women. These findings were inconsistent with another study conducted by Alharthi.[19] However, our results showed that the participants' knowledge about OA was not significantly associated with residence, age, education level, monthly income and nature of the job. This is in contrast to the findings of a Malaysian study.[20] More than half of the respondents reported that OA in their family or friends, which is corroborated by the study done in Jeddah,[17] whereas the study done by Alyami et al. reported about 44% of the respondents came to know about OA from their family members or friends.[21]

Ganasegeran et al.,[20] conducted a study involving railway workers in Malaysia to determine the knowledge of symptomatic knee OA and found that participants who were previously diagnosed with OA or those with a family history of OA had significantly more knowledge than those who were healthy and those with a family history. These findings are consistent with the current findings. In the present study, the knowledge on OA was significantly associated with prior knowledge about OA; the participants who had poor, moderate and adequate knowledge had not heard about it before.


  Conclusion Top


Overall, the current research revealed that the majority of the participants who lived in Sudair had moderate knowledge about OA. The respondents who were previously diagnosed with OA or those with a family history of OA had good knowledge of the disease. From the results above, it may be inferred that inculcating awareness through public health education is an important tool to increase awareness and knowledge of OA.

Acknowledgements

The authors would like to thank the Deanship of Scientific Research at Majmaah University for allowing us to conduct this research work. We would also like to extend our thanks and acknowledge the participants of the study for giving consent to participate in the study.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
  References Top

1.
Health Quality Ontario. Structured Education and Neuromuscular Exercise Program for Hip and/or Knee Osteoarthritis: A Health Technology Assessment. Ont Health Technol Assess Ser 2018;18:1-110.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
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Michael JW, Schlüter-Brust KU, Eysel P. The epidemiology, etiology, diagnosis, and treatment of osteoarthritis of the knee. Dtsch Arztebl Int 2010;107:152-62.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
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Lawrence RC, Felson DT, Helmick CG, Arnold LM, Choi H, Deyo RA, et al National Arthritis Data Workgroup. Estimates of the prevalence of arthritis and other rheumatic conditions in the United States. Part II. Arthritis Rheum. 2008;58:26-35. doi: 10.1002/art.23176. PMID: 18163497; PMCID: PMC3266664.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
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Nelson AE. Osteoarthritis year in review 2017: Clinical. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 2018;26:319.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
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Al-Arfaj A, Al-Boukai AA. Prevalence of radiographic knee osteoarthritis in Saudi Arabia. Clin Rheumatol 2002;21:142-5.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
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Allen KD, Golightly YM. State of the evidence. Curr Opin Rheumatol 2015;27:276-83.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
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Muthuri SG, Hui M, Doherty M, Zhang W. What if we prevent obesity? Risk reduction in knee osteoarthritis estimated through a meta-analysis of observational studies. Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken) 2011;63:982-90.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
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Tran G, Smith TO, Grice A, Kingsbury SR, McCrory P, Conaghan PG. Does sports participation (including level of performance and previous injury) increase risk of osteoarthritis? A systematic review and meta-analysis. Br J Sports Med 2016;50:1459-66.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
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Deleuran T, Vilstrup H, Overgaard S, Jepsen P. No Increased Risk for Primary Osteoarthritis in Liver Cirrhosis - A Danish Nationwide Cohort Study. PLoS One 2016;11:e0167134.  Back to cited text no. 12
    
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Lespasio MJ, Piuzzi NS, Husni ME, Muschler GF, Guarino A, Mont MA. Knee Osteoarthritis: A Primer. Perm J 2017;21:16-183.  Back to cited text no. 13
    
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Collins NJ, Hart HF, Mills KA. Osteoarthritis year in review 2018: Rehabilitation and outcomes. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 2019;27:378-91.  Back to cited text no. 14
    
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Hsu H, Siwiec RM. Knee Osteoarthritis. In: StatPearls. Treasure Island, FL: StatPearls Publishing; 2021. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK507884/. [Last updated on 2020 Jun 29].  Back to cited text no. 15
    
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Mukharrib MS, Al-Sharif MN, Alshehri TK, Shaker A. Knowledge of knee osteoarthritis among general population in Aseer region. J Family Med Prim Care 2018;7:1385-9.  Back to cited text no. 16
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Algahtani H, Shirah B, Alhazmi A, Alshareef A, Bajunaid M, Samman A. Perception and attitude of the general population towards Alzheimer's disease in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Acta Neurol Belg 2020;120:313-20.  Back to cited text no. 17
    
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Smink AJ, van den Ende CH, Vliet Vlieland TP. Beating osteoarthritis: Development of a stepped care strategy to optimize utilization and timing of non-surgical treatment modalities for patients with hip or knee osteoarthritis. Clin Rheumatol 2011;30:1623-9.  Back to cited text no. 18
    
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Alharthi AS. Awareness of osteoarthritis among Saudi population. Int J Sci Eng Res 2017;8:168892.  Back to cited text no. 19
    
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Ganasegeran K, Menke JM, Challakere Ramaswamy VM, Abdul Manaf R, Alabsi AM, Al-Dubai SA. Level and determinants of knowledge of symptomatic knee osteoarthritis among railway workers in Malaysia. Biomed Res Int 2014;2014:370273.  Back to cited text no. 20
    
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Alyami AH, Alswat MM, Omer IA, Ahmed MEH, Alshammari SH, Alsaggaf KW, et al. General population knowledge about osteoarthritis and its related risk factors in Jeddah Saudi Arabia. Saudi Med J 2020;41:516-23.  Back to cited text no. 21
    


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