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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
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Efficacy of lopinavir/ritonavir plus interferon beta compared to hydroxychloroquine in the treatment of COVID-19: A retrospective observational study


1 Student Research Committee, Faculty of Pharmacy, Hormozgan University of Medical Sciences, Bandar Abbas, Iran
2 Infectious and Tropical Diseases Research Center, Hormozgan Health Institute, Hormozgan University of Medical Sciences, Bandar Abbas, Iran
3 Health Information Technology Department, Faculty of Paramedicine, Hormozgan University of Medical Sciences, Bandar Abbas, Iran
4 Department of Clinical Pharmacy, Hormozgan University of Medical Sciences, Bandar Abbas, Iran
5 Department of Clinical Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran
6 Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Hormozgan University of Medical Sciences; Endocrinology and Metabolic Research Center, Hormozgan University of Medical Sciences, Bandar Abbas, Iran

Correspondence Address:
Mohammad Fathalipour,
Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Hormozgan University of Medical Sciences; Endocrinology and Metabolic Research Center, Hormozgan University of Medical Sciences, Bandar Abbas
Iran
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/aihb.aihb_70_22

Introduction: Although a long time past since COVID-19 was broken out, it is hard to determine which pharmacological combination regimen is more efficacious. The present study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) plus interferon (IFN) beta-1a regimen compared to the hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) regimen in moderately ill patients with COVID-19. Methods: A multiple-centre retrospective observational case-controlled study was performed between March and September 2020, including adults with confirmed COVID-19. The patients were categorised into age- and sex-matched two groups; LPV/r plus IFN beta-1a (n = 102) and HCQ (n = 298) regimens. Clinical outcomes and mortality rates were compared between the groups. Results: LPV/r plus interferon (INF) beta-1a regimen had improved none of the clinical outcomes and mortality rate compared to the HCQ regimen. The length of stay (LOS) in the hospital and the need for oxygen therapy were slightly worse in the LPV/r plus INF beta-1a regimen (4.73 ± 2.93 days, 63%) than in the HCQ group (3.74 ± 3.30 days, 48.3%). No statistically significant difference was observed between the two groups in care of intensive care unit (ICU) admission, LOS in ICU, the need for non-invasive ventilation and the need for invasive mechanical ventilation as well as in-hospital mortality rate. Conclusions: LPV/r plus IFN beta-1a regimen did not show any meaningful improvement in clinical outcomes or mortality compared to the HCQ regimen. Larger randomised controlled trials are needed to assess the efficacy of this combination further.


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    -  Amirizadeh M
    -  Sarvestani FS
    -  Khorrami F
    -  Safa O
    -  Davoodian P
    -  Hassaniazad M
    -  Akhlaghi B
    -  Fathalipour M
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