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ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Effect of Terminalia Arjuna on total platelet count and lipid profile in patients of coronary artery disease
Nidhi Priya, KC Mathur, A Sharma, RP Agrawal, V Agarwal, Jitendra Acharya
January-April 2019, 9(1):98-101
DOI:10.4103/AIHB.AIHB_8_18  
Objective: Our study was undertaken to observe the effect of Terminalia arjuna on total platelet count, lipid profile, clinical parameters in patients of coronary artery disease (CAD) and their usefulness in the same patient group. Materials and Methods: One hundred patients having CAD were selected and randomised to study group (to receive Arjuna Chhal Powder) and control group (not receiving any medication). After the therapy of 1 month with Arjuna Chhal Powder, patients of both study and control groups evaluated for body weight, blood pressure, pulse rate, total platelet count and lipid profile. Observations were analysed with use of appropriate statistical test. Results: We observed 0.22% decrease in body weight in study group although insignificant. The systolic blood pressure decreased by 10.28% and diastolic blood pressure by 4.8% in the study group which was statistically significant in comparison to control group. The pulse rate has shown a decrement of 4.85% of baseline and total platelet count decreased by 10.81% with statistically significant difference. Lipid profile improved with 10.2% reduction in total cholesterol level, 17.9% reduction in serum triglyceride level, 9.59% reduction in serum low-density lipoprotein (LDL) level, 16% reduction in serum very LDL level and 10.48% increase in serum high-density lipoprotein level, all being statistically significant. Conclusions: T. arjuna bark extract can significantly reduce blood pressure and favourably modify lipid profile. It might also have antioxidant properties and may be beneficial for cardiac as well as overall health.
  85,395 941 5
Incidence of cord around the neck and its effects on labour and neonatal outcome
Khushboo Joshi, Ruchi Saxena, Madhu Bhat, Yashpal Lomrod, Kamala Verma
January-April 2017, 7(1):15-18
DOI:10.4103/2321-8568.199535  
Background: The umbilical cord is a narrow tube-like structure that connects the developing baby to the placenta. Most of the nuchal cords diagnosed in early pregnancy get spontaneously uncoiled. This study was carried out to show that such natural occurrence does not have significant effect on pregnancy, labour and neonates if proper intra-partum foetal heart rate (FHR) monitoring could be provided by a caregiver. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology at Sardar Patel Medical College, Bikaner (Rajasthan). For completing 100 cases with nuchal cord, we had to observe 506 cases and by which we took out the incidence of nuchal cord and which was separately categorised into single, double, triple and four and more than four groups. Results: The present study showed mean cord length also increases with number of loops (50.93 cm in single loop as compared to 72.33 cm) in cases with four loops and showed that patients having tight nuchal cord have higher incidence of caesarean as well as forceps delivery, but these were not statistically significant (P = 0.56 and P= 0.57) and Apgar score <7 at 1 min, FHR deceleration and meconium staining of liquor were statistically higher significant (P = 0.001,P= 0.0001 and P= 0.001, respectively). Conclusion: At present, expertise to diagnose multiple and tight loops on ultrasound are limited, which should be the aim for future. Multicentric and large studies are further required in association with more specific and sensitive diagnostic aid for tight and multiple loops so as to provide the best perinatal management with good foetal outcome.
  21,226 778 3
CASE REPORTS
Management of exposed collagen membrane after socket seal surgery for placement of dental implant
Prasad Nadig, Monali Shah, Ashit Bharwani, Priyadarshini Nadig
May-August 2017, 7(2):95-98
DOI:10.4103/AIHB.AIHB_27_16  
The predictable success of dental implants has revolutionised dentistry in many ways. Clinicians are becoming more vigilant in planning teeth extraction than ever before. This has led to the routine use of the concept of the socket preservation after tooth extraction and before the placement of dental implant. This routine use of collagen membrane use for socket preservation has uncovered a new situation of the exposed collagen membrane left intentionally or unintentionally which has to be dealt with frequently. The management of such exposed collagen membrane becomes vital for the success of socket seal surgery. This case report emphasises on the management of exposed collagen membrane after socket seal surgery and before placement of dental implant.
  16,804 614 -
REVIEW ARTICLE
DNA vaccine: Methods and mechanisms
Saber Soltani, Abbas Farahani, Mahsa Dastranj, Navid Momenifar, Parviz Mohajeri, Amir Darb Emamie
September-December 2018, 8(3):132-139
DOI:10.4103/AIHB.AIHB_74_17  
Infectious diseases are the biggest cause of mortality and morbidity in humans, especially in poor and developing countries. For many years, no new vaccine has been developed, which indicates the limitations of the development of common vaccines, including destruction and inactivation of the vaccine, weakened vaccines toxoids known as first-generation vaccines. Types of vaccines including: (1) First-generation vaccines, (2) second-generation vaccines or recombinant vaccines, (3) third-generation vaccines (gene vaccine). The study on DNA vaccines first began in the 1990s, when the plasmid DNA is injected into the skin or muscle was reported to induce antibody responses to antigens. Since DNA vaccines are easily designed and manufactured, they are easier to preserve them, and they are inexpensive, as one of the most desirable types of vaccine. However, more clinical trials are needed to prove the immune responses that immune to DNA vaccine in humans. Information on the vaccination method, adjuvant and the genetic structure of the vaccine is still not complete.
  15,134 1,051 5
Dental Anomalies: An Update
Fatemeh Jahanimoghadam
September-December 2016, 6(3):112-118
DOI:10.4103/2321-8568.195316  
Dental anomalies are usual congenital malformation that can happen either as isolated findings or as a part of a syndrome. Developmental anomalies influencing the morphology exists in both deciduous and permanent dentition and shows different forms such as gemination, fusion, concrescence, dilaceration, dens evaginatus (DE), enamel pearls, taurodontism or peg-shaped laterals. All These anomalies have clinical significance concerning aesthetics, malocclusion and more necessary preparing of the development of dental decays and oral diseases. Through a search in PubMed, Google, Scopus and Medline, a total of eighty original research papers during 1928-2016 were found with the keywords such as dental anomaly, syndrome, tooth and hypodontia. One hundred review titles were identified, eighty reviews were retrieved that were finally included as being relevant and of sufficient quality. In this review, dental anomalies including gemination, fusion, concrescence, dilaceration, dens invaginatus, DE, taurodontism, enamel pearls, fluorosis, peg-shaped laterals, dentinal dysplasia, regional odontodysplasia and hypodontia are discussed. Diagnosing dental abnormality needs a thorough evaluation of the patient, involving a medical, dental, familial and clinical history. Clinical examination and radiographic evaluation and in some of the cases, specific laboratory tests are also needed. Developmental dental anomalies require careful examination and treatment planning. Where one anomaly is present, clinicians should suspect that other anomalies may also be present. Moreover, careful clinical and radiographical examination is required. Furthermore, more complex cases need multidisciplinary planning and treatment.
  14,032 1,238 3
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Global cancer statistics 2018: Globocan estimates of incidence and mortality worldwide prostate cancers and their relationship with the human development index
Zaher Khazaei, Malihe Sohrabivafa, Victoria Momenabadi, Leili Moayed, Elham Goodarzi
September-December 2019, 9(3):245-250
DOI:10.4103/2321-8568.262891  
Background: Prostate cancer is one of the most common cancers in men and is the second leading cause of death, especially in developed countries. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the incidence and mortality of prostate cancer and its relationship with the human development index (HDI). Materials and Methods: This is an ecological review of the incidence of prostate cancer and its relation with HDI and its components in 2018. Data about the incidence and mortality rate of breast cancer for the year 2018 were obtained from the global cancer project for 185 countries. To analyse data, correlation test and regression tests were used to evaluate the correlation between the incidence and mortality with HDI. The statistical analysis was carried out by Stata-14, and the significance level was estimated at the level of 0.05. Results: The result showed that there is a positive and significant correlation between the incidence (R = 0.531,P < 0.001) and mortality (R = −0.219,P < 0.001) of prostate cancer with HDI. The linear regression model showed that the increase in HDI, mean years of schooling (MYS), expected years of schooling (EYS), life expectancy at birth (LBE) and gross national income was associated with an increase in the incidence of prostate cancer in men, but it was statistically significant only in MYS (B = 3.6,P < 0.05) and EYS (B = 4.8,P < 0.05). Furthermore, the increase in life expectancy at birth (B = −0.45,P < 0.05) significantly decreased mortality. Conclusion: By increasing the HDI the incidence of prostate cancer increases, but the mortality rate decreases. Therefore, HDI can be used to provide a clear picture of the distribution of this cancer. Having a comprehensive picture of the epidemiological features and changes of prostate cancer has a significant role to play in preventing, diagnosing and treating early, and reducing mortality.
  13,179 1,453 15
Assessment of academic/non-academic factors and extracurricular activities influencing performance of medical students of faculty of medicine, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Malaysia
Mainul Haque, Nor Azlina A Rahman, Md. Anwarul Azim Majumder, Nor Iza A Rahman, Seraj Zohurul Haque, Zainal Zulkifli, Halyna Lugova, Rabiu Muazu Musa, Ahmed Ghazi Alattraqchi
January-April 2018, 8(1):3-18
DOI:10.4103/AIHB.AIHB_28_17  
Background: Physical and mental comfort is known to have a crucial influence on health and performance amongst medical students. Very often, medical students suffer from poor quality of life (QOL) related to the work-life balance due to the lack of sleep, nutritional and dietary disorders and low physical activity, resulting in a negative impact on their academic performance. This study aims to determine the potential academic/non-academic factors and extra-curricular activities influencing the performance of medical students in Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin (UniSZA). Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted on medical students at the Faculty of Medicine, UniSZA, Terengganu, Malaysia. A sample size of 300 respondents were recruited from Year I to V medical students. The questionnaire was adopted, modified and validated from a similar study in Saudi Arabia. Results: Majority of the students enjoy medical education are self-motivated, have a good command of English, non-smokers and have a sufficient sleep. Conclusion: University medical students possess good QOL within the optimum educational environment.
  11,530 671 1
CASE REPORTS
Geographic Tongue: A Case Report with Review of Literature
Nupur Shah, Pratik Kariya, Bhavna Dave, Princy Thomas
September-December 2016, 6(3):142-144
DOI:10.4103/2321-8568.195321  
Tongue is a most delicate part of the oral cavity. It is in charge of numerous functions like swallowing, speech, mastication, speaking and breathing. Geographic tongue (Benign migratory glossitis, erythema migrans) is an asymptomatic inflammatory disorder of tongue with controversial etiology. This disease is characterized by erythematous areas showing raised greyish or white circulated lines or bands with irregular pattern on the dorsal surface of the tongue and depapillation. The objective in presenting the case report and literature review is to discuss the clinical presentation, etiological factors, associated syndrome and management strategies of geographic tongue.
  10,521 1,279 1
RESEARCH ARTICLES
New Treatment Approaches of Oral Mucositis: A Review of Literature
Narges Gholizadeh, Nafiseh Sheykhbahaei, Maryam-Sadat Sadrzadeh-Afshar
May-August 2016, 6(2):66-72
DOI:10.4103/2321-8568.190319  
Oral mucositis (OM) is described as inflammation of the mucosa in the oral cavity which is caused by destruction of the oral mucosal epithelial cells and growth suppression secondary to cancer treatment in the form of radiotherapy or chemotherapeutic drug substances. It is the most debilitating condition and the most common complication in cancer patients. It appears first by thinning of oral tissues which leads to erythema. As these tissues become thinner, ulceration eventually occurs. Potential complications include pain, increased risk of local and systemic infections, bleeding and insufficient food intake and may lead to breaks in treatment sessions. It is usually associated with pain, increased risk of infection and dysphasia and may lead to inadequate hydration and impaired nutritional status. Traditional management of OM has involved patient compliance and education, hydration, nutritional support, use of saline rinses, topical and systemic pain relief and infection surveillance and treatment. The PubMed, Medline, Ovid, Science Direct and Google were searched from 1998 to 2015. The search terms used for medical subject heading were 'oral mucositis' and 'new treatments of mucositis'. Unfortunately, there is not a single method which is capable of preventing or eliminating OM in an efficient way. In this article, we reviewed new therapeutic methods of OM including cryotherapy, honey and coffee, propolis, low-level laser therapy, growth factors, stem cell therapy, hyaluronic acid-based substances and matrix metalloprotease blockers.
  9,521 1,382 13
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
A study of labour outcome in breech delivery
Suman Budania, Mukesh Kumar Beniwal, Geeta Choudhary
January-April 2017, 7(1):32-36
DOI:10.4103/2321-8568.199534  
Aim: Breech is the most common form of malpresentation. It is defined as when foetus occupies a longitudinal lie with the pelvic extremity at the pelvic brim and head at the fundus of the uterus. The present study was conducted on 100 cases of breech presentation to find out the labour outcome in breech deliveries and various factors affecting it. Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Umaid Hospital, attached to Dr. S.N. Medical College, Jodhpur. A total of 100 cases of breech presentation including single as well as plural pregnancies in which one or more foetuses were presenting as breech were taken. Both booked and unbooked cases in primigravidae and multigravidae were studied. The cases were selected at random among those who got admitted in labour room. Results: In the present series, incidence of breech deliveries came to be 4.1094%. Incidence of breech presentation was maximum (45%) in the age group of 21–25 years. In this study, out of 100 cases, 62 were multigravidae and 38 were primigravidae, and 43 cases (43%) were associated with factors which endanger of life of the foetus, among which twin pregnancy and pre-eclamptic toxaemia were the most commonly associated factors. In the present series, among 100 cases studied, 14 were breech babies and congenital malformation, of which hydrocephalus was the most common malformation found. Conclusion: The study concludes that prematurity is associated with high incidence of breech presentation. The most common variety of breech presentation is flexed breech, which is found more in multigravidae. Caesarean section is the mode of delivery of choice as it carries minimal foetal loss. Extended variety of breech is safest for the baby and carries minimal foetal loss.
  10,207 541 -
Epidemiology, incidence and mortality of thyroid cancer and their relationship with the human development index in the world: An ecology study in 2018
Elham Goodarzi, Alireza Moslem, Hossein Feizhadad, Alireza Mosavi Jarrahi, Hossein Ali Adineh, Malihe Sohrabivafa, Zaher Khazaei
May-August 2019, 9(2):162-167
DOI:10.4103/AIHB.AIHB_2_19  
Objective: Thyroid cancer is one of the most common malignancies, with an incidence rate of about two fold in the last 25 years and accounting for 2% of all cancers. The Human Development Index (HDI) is used to measure the development of countries level. The aim of this study was to investigate thyroid cancer morbidity and mortality and its association with HDI. Methods: The present analysis is a descriptive cross-sectional study that is based on cancer incidence data and cancer mortality rates extracted from the World Bank for Cancer in 2018. The incidence and mortality rates and thyroid cancer distribution maps were drawn for world countries. To analyse data, correlation and regression tests were used to evaluate the correlation between incidence and mortality with HDI. The statistical analysis was carried out by Stata 14, and significance level was estimated at the level of 0.05. Results: The results showed a positive correlation between incidence and thyroid cancer (r = 0.497, P < 0.05); however, the correlation observed between mortality and HDI was negative, which was not statistically significant (r = −0.06, P > 0.05). There was a positive and significant correlation between incidence with gross national income per 1000 capita (r = 0.328, P < 0.0001), Mean years of schooling (r = 0.445, P < 0.0001) life expectancy at birth (r = 0.509, P < 0.0001) and expected years of schooling (r = 0.463, P < 0.0001); however, this correlation was not statistically significant in mortality rate (P > 0.05). Linear regression model showed that increase in LEB (B = 0.2, confidence interval [CI] 95%: [0.01, 0.4]) significantly increased thyroid cancer incidence (P < 0.05). The regression analysis showed that increase in life expectancy at birth (B = 0.02, CI 95% [0.008, 0.04]) increased mortality (P < 0.05). The study showed that the mean incidence and thyroid cancer mortality in female were significantly higher than males (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The thyroid cancer incidence in high-HDI countries and the mortality rate in countries with low HDI are increasing. Therefore, HDI can be used to provide a clear picture for the distribution of this cancer in different parts of the world.
  8,611 869 5
REVIEW ARTICLE
Importance of empathy among medical doctors to ensure high-quality healthcare level
Mainul Haque
May-August 2019, 9(2):104-107
DOI:10.4103/AIHB.AIHB_44_18  
Patients hunt for genuine empathy from their medical doctor. Empathy is an affective mode of understanding. Empathy involves being enthused by another's experiences. However, a leading group medical doctors defines empathy as 'the act of correctly acknowledging the emotional state of another without experiencing that state oneself'. Beyond the field of medicine, empathy is an approach to understanding that precisely involves emotional resonance. However, mentioned definition of empathy primarily gives emphasis to an intellectual component rather than emotional form. Medical educationist and medical professional bodies increasingly recognise the importance of empathy because there are a lot report published regarding poor empathy level among medical doctors. This article will try to discuss emphasising on educational intervention which improves empathy level and its influence on healthcare.
  7,465 690 1
CASE REPORTS
Management of iatrogenically exposed maxillary sinus with a broken periosteal elevator trapped inside
Nureldeen Elhammali, Pratik Bipinkumar Kariya, Kirankumar Sudulakunta Vorse, Anit Singh
May-August 2017, 7(2):92-94
DOI:10.4103/AIHB.AIHB_44_16  
Foreign bodies may be ingested after being inserted into an oral cavity or deposited in the body by traumatic or iatrogenic injury. Accidentally left out foreign materials are common complications of dental procedures including apical deposition of endodontic materials, sub-mucosal amalgam pieces, graphite tattoos and traumatically introduced dental materials and instruments. Once a foreign material is left behind within a soft and/or hard tissue, it promotes local inflammation and infection that may cause pain and/or destruction within the surrounding tissues. This article presents a case of retrieval of iatrogenically broken periosteal elevator trapped in the maxillary sinus.
  7,596 461 -
REVIEW ARTICLES
Are statins worthy for treatment of periodontitis? A systematic review and meta-analysis
Monali Shah, Prasad Muley, Arti Muley
January-April 2017, 7(1):8-14
DOI:10.4103/2321-8568.199531  
Background: Statins are drugs used for locking the synthesis of cholesterol as it inhibits 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase. Besides action on cholesterol, statins also possess multiple pleiotropic actions such as anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, antioxidant, antithrombotic, angiogenesis promotion and increase in bone formation; other new pleiotropic effects of statins are continuously being described, but their clinical relevance has not been established. Objective: This systematic review and meta-analysis was planned to assess the effect of systemic or local statin therapy on clinical as well as radiographic periodontal parameters in patients with chronic periodontitis. Methodology: A search was performed in the electronic databases of MEDLINE/PubMed, EBSCO and Cochrane databases for randomised controlled trial on humans, and hand search was also carried out. The included articles were screened for their risk of bias and data extracted in predefined format. The meta-analysis was performed using comprehensive meta-analysis. Software: Random effects model was used for pooled analysis. Results: Six studies were included in systematic review having moderate to low risk of bias. Four studies were included in meta-analysis. Results of meta-analysis for clinical parameters such as clinical attachment level (1.95 mm), probing depth (2.28 mm) and marginal sulcular bleeding index (1.10) as well as for radiographic parameters such as intrabony defect (1.90 mm) were statistically significant for locally applied statins. Conclusion: As statins are effective and safe in short-term use and locally delivered and user-friendly, they can be more widely used in periodontal treatment.
  6,961 599 1
REVIEW ARTICLE
Social intelligence of parents with autism spectrum disorders impacts their emotional behaviour: A new proposed model for stabilising emotionality of these parents impacting their social intelligence
Vidya Bhagat, Mainul Haque, Nordin Bin Simbak, Kamarudin Jaalam
May-August 2017, 7(2):43-53
DOI:10.4103/AIHB.AIHB_17_17  
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) may affect all spheres of a child's life. Indeed, parents and siblings also live with emotional instabilities in the family. The experience of parents with ASD child can be distressing since they need to make more adjustments to the demanding need to cope with their life situations. Perhaps, their life is drastically exaggerated with their complexities of life. Particularly, their social life is radically affected. The presence of pervasive and severe deficits in children with ASD isolates these parents from their social life; demanding adjustments to their social environment of parents in their life situations shove them into distress and unstable emotions. Finally, they culminate being shattered in their interpersonal relationship, their family and social life. Indeed, these aspects of distress mask social intelligence of these parents, thus narrow down their focus more on the treatment rather than holistic management of their child. Thus, the management of ASD with these parents of the deficit children to reach their fullest abilities remains doubtful. Therefore, the objectives of this study are as follows: (a) to examine the impact of emotionality on social intelligence of parents blessed with autistic child, (b) to develop awareness regarding social intelligence and its significance among these parents, (c) to propose a new model stabilising emotionality of these parents through developing social adaption skills and (d) to suggest a new model as a guide in the current intervention regimens to ensure the emotional well-being and better social adoption. This study is made based on the keenly examined past evidence with the correlation of emotionality and its impact on social intelligence of the parents with ASD children. The results reveal that the social intelligence is perceived as lowered evidenced by poor social adjustment reflected in social isolation observed in the parents of children with ASD. A new model proposed for stabilising and developing awareness of social intelligence among the parents of ASD children. Integrating this model with the existing treatment paradigm has been suggested to attain the better result. The conclusion is drawn in this study by analysing the fact that considerable improvement in the diagnosed child may not amend the parent and family distress and drastically affect social intelligence. Indeed, the intervention can be more promising with the healthy personality of parents, where their multiple aspects of intelligence are not affected. The new proposed model of intervention can pave the way for further research in this regard.
  6,847 585 1
REVIEW ARTICLES
Effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic field exposure on neurophysiology
Chidiebere Emmanuel Okechukwu
January-April 2020, 10(1):6-10
DOI:10.4103/AIHB.AIHB_96_19  
The human body is a permissible medium, and radiofrequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) waves pass through this medium. The effects exerted by RF-EMF devices such as mobile phones on brain tissues are categorised into thermal and non-thermal effects. The aim of this review was to analyse the interactions and interface between RF-EMF exposure and the nervous system, to ascertain any negative impact on the nervous system at both cellular, molecular and systems level. Original studies that reported on the effects of RF-EMF exposure on the brain function and nervous system from inception to 20 August 2019 were searched online. The PubMed database was utilised. The MeSH system was used to excerpt relevant research studies from PubMed using the following keywords: electromagnetic field, radiofrequency, mobile phone, brain, central nervous system, radiation and neurophysiology. All selected articles were published in the English. Full articles were assessed, and relevant information was extracted. RF-EMF exposure significantly altered several neurophysiological mechanisms based on electroencephalogram studies and molecular and biochemical analysis. However, there was no substantial evidence linking RF-EMF exposure to the pathogenesis of brain tumour.
  6,860 558 4
Disability brief in single chapter and bangladesh perspectives: A rapid overview
Munzur-E-Murshid , Mainul Haque
May-August 2020, 10(2):41-50
DOI:10.4103/AIHB.AIHB_6_20  
Disability is a complex issue. The concept of disability evolves over time from a charity to the right-based approach. It is a tremendous public health concern worldwide. We cannot achieve Sustainable Development Goals by leaving behind the persons with disabilities. In this article, readers will know the evolving basic concepts of disability, disability models and so on. Persons with disabilities faced unjustified discrimination in society. They are excluded from education and employment opportunities. This group of people faced great difficulty in accessing primary health-care services. Persons with disabilities are the biggest minority group in the world. They are neglected in the family ground to the community, community to the national level and national level to global ground. This manuscript primarily focuses on disability in Bangladeshi perspectives. Readers can find existing legal frameworks to protect the rights of people with disabilities in Bangladesh. The various types of disabilities considered by the legal frameworks of Bangladesh. They will also know the current employment opportunities of persons with disabilities in Bangladesh and the economic costs of disability in Bangladesh.
  6,939 429 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Incidence and mortality of cervix cancer and their relationship with the human development index in 185 countries in the world: An ecology study in 2018
Zaher Khazaei, Malihe Sohrabivafa, Kamyar Mansori, Hasan Naemi, Elham Goodarzi
September-December 2019, 9(3):222-227
DOI:10.4103/AIHB.AIHB_15_19  
Introduction: Invasive cervix cancer is one of the most common causes of female genital cancer and accounts for 30% of cancers in developing countries and 5% in developed countries. Economic, social and sexual differences are associated with an increased risk of the cancer in women. Methods: This is a descriptive–analytic study based on incidence and mortality data extracted from the World Cancer Bank. The incidence and mortality rates and cervix uteri cancer distribution maps were drawn for world countries. To analyse data, correlation test and regression tests were used to evaluate the correlation between the incidence and mortality with Human Development Index (HDI). The statistical analysis was carried out by Stata-14, and the significance level was estimated at the level of 0.05. Results: The results showed a significant negative correlation between cervix cancer incidence rate (r = −0.570,P < 0.001) and mortality (r = −0.699,P < 0.001) with the HDI index. Negative and significant correlation was found between the incidence rate with the gross national income (GNI) (r = −0.37,P < 0.0001), Mean years of schooling (MYS) (r = −42,P < 0.0001), Life expectancy at birth (LEB) (r = −0.64,P < 0.0001) and Expected years of schooling (EYS) (r = −0.41,P < 0.0001). There was a significant negative correlation between the mortality rate and GNI (r = −0.42,P < 0.0001), MYS (r = −0.57,P < 0.0001), LEB (r = −0.73,P < 0.0001) and EYS (r = −0.56,P < 0.0001). The linear regression model showed that the increase of HDI (B = 91.8, confidence interval [CI] 95%: [−146.6, −37]) and LEB (B = −0.86, CI 95% [−1.3, −0.3]) decreased and increased MYS (B = 1.31, CI 95% [0.05, 2.5]) and EYS (B = 2.9, CI 95% [1.5.4.4]) significantly increased the incidence of cervix uteri (P < 0.05). Linear regression model showed that the increase of HDI [B = 91.8, CI95%: (-146.6, -37)] and LEB [B = -0.86, CI95% (-1.3, -0.3)] decreased the incidence and increase of MYS [B = 1.31, CI95% (0.05, 2.5)] and EYS [B = 2.9, CI95% (1.5.4.4)] significantly increased the incidence of cervical uteri (P <0.05). And increased HDI [B = 89.3, CI95% (-124.9, -53.8)] and [B = -0.3, CI95% (-0.6, -0.04)] reduced mortality and increased GNI [B = 0.009, CI95% ( 0.001, 0.1)], MYS [B = 0.8, CI95% (1.1.2.9)] and EYS [B = 2.04, CI95% (1.1.4.9)] significantly increased mortality of cervical cancer (P <0.05). Conclusion: Women in moderate to low HDI societies face poor socioeconomic conditions and should be considered as target groups for the prevention of cervix cancer. Moreover, prevention interventions should be focused on this group to ultimately bring about a positive change in the level of morbidity and mortality caused by cervix cancer.
  6,778 580 8
REVIEW ARTICLES
Deploying diode laser in periodontics: An evidence-based review
Nidhi Kirit Shah, Jasuma J Rai, Deepak H Dave, Jaimini K Patel
May-August 2018, 8(2):64-69
DOI:10.4103/AIHB.AIHB_52_17  
Lasers have completely changed the concept of dental treatment since three and half decades of 20th century. After the invention of ruby laser by Maiman in 1960, laser has become the most magnetizing technology in dentistry. Diode Lasers have been used in initial periodontal therapy, surgery, and also in implant treatment. In many countries Laser has become a part of the dental armamentarium. The included articles were searched from PubMed, Trip Database, Google scholar and Cocharane database. The purpose of this review article is to critically analyze the effectiveness of diode laser on soft and hard tissue in the field of Periodontics.
  5,949 939 1
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Comparison of perceived sleep quality among urban and rural adult population by Bengali Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index
Himel Mondal, Shaikat Mondal, Chayan Baidya
January-April 2018, 8(1):36-40
DOI:10.4103/AIHB.AIHB_44_17  
Background: Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) assesses perceived quality of sleep. Bengali is the 6th language in the world according to the number of first language speakers. PSQI is presently not available in Bengali. Poor quality of sleep affects work efficiency and health of individual and it is increasing in urban as well as in rural population. Aim: The aim of the study was (1) to adapt PSQI in Bengali Language and (2) to find the prevalence rate of poor quality of sleep among urban and rural populations and to compare the rate. Materials and Methods: First, Bengali PSQI (BPSQI) was adapted by linguistic validation methods. Then, a cross-sectional survey was conducted among sample in a municipal ward and in a village by BPSQI. The prevalence of poor sleep quality among the sample was ascertained. Data were presented in percentage, mean and standard deviation. Chi-square test and unpaired t-test were used according to necessity with α = 0.05. Results: Adapted BPSQI instrument was found of acceptable internal consistency (Cronbach's α = 0.816). The prevalence rate of poor sleep quality in urban adult population was 42.58% and rural population was 35.89% (χ2 = 4.004, P = 0.0454). Adult females in urban area showed more prevalence rate of poor sleep quality (58.74%) than those of adult females in rural area (45.96%). Conclusion: Adapted BPSQI can be used as a self-administered questionnaire among Bengali native speakers. A significant percentage of urban and rural adult population suffers from poor quality of sleep. Adult population in urban area, especially adult females, suffers more from poor quality of sleep than rural population.
  5,900 487 3
REVIEW ARTICLE
Generic medicine and prescribing: A quick assessment
Mainul Haque
September-December 2017, 7(3):101-108
DOI:10.4103/AIHB.AIHB_26_17  
Generic drugs are copies of brand-name drugs that have exactly the same dosage, intended use, effects, side effects, route of administration, risks, safety, and strength as the original drug. In other words, their pharmacological effects are exactly the same as those of their brand-name counterparts. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) describes that generic drugs are essential possibilities that allow better access to healthcare for all Americans. They are replicas of brand-name drugs and are the identical as those of brand-name drugs in dosage form, safety, strength, route of administration, quality, performance features, and anticipated to use. Healthcare authorities and users can be guaranteed that FDA-approved generic drug products have met the same stiff principles as the innovator drug. The company that made Bayer aspirin fought in court enthusiastically to keep generic versions off the shelves, in the 1920s. The company lost in court, and consumers suddenly had an array of choices in generic aspirin. The Supreme Court of India uttering ‘the Supreme Court's ruling will prevent companies from further seeking unwarranted patents on HIV and other essential medicines.’ Generic medicine cannot be sold at a price higher than the branded medicine, so it is regularly a low-priced option. Thereafter, both the end user and the government who pay for part of the price of the medicine under the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme in Australia are benefitted. The treatment of diseases using essential drugs, prescribed by their generic names, has been emphasised by the WHO and many national health policies. Although there are some improvements in generic medicine prescribing, it has been advised by the WHO that ‘countries should intensify efforts to measure and regularly monitor medicine prices and availability, and adopt policy measures to address the issues identified.’
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Knowledge, attitude and practice among Malaysian medical students, doctors, other health professionals and common people regarding antibiotic use, prescribing and resistance: A systematic review
Nur Aishah Che Roos, Muhamad Abu Bakar, Mainul Haque
September-December 2019, 9(3):179-183
DOI:10.4103/AIHB.AIHB_42_19  
The use of antibiotics has been associated with the sizeable cutback of infectious disease mortality. Antibiotics also tremendously support the treatment of cancer, transplantation and many other surgeries. Currently, the development of new antibiotics has been slow down. Besides, there is a rapid process of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) against almost all available antibiotics. Moreover, there is quick progress of microbial development with multiple antibiotic resistant which adds more fatality. An independent search was performed from inception until January 2019 using electronic databases, including Medline, Scopus, Web of Science and PubMed for published articles. Seventeen articles were included; six among the medical professionals and students and 11 among the general public across the country. The quality of the included studies was deemed average. Medical, pharmacy and other university subjects' students' knowledge level were low to average. Often, medical and pharmacy students' knowledge level was better than others. One study clearly denoted that there is a gap between theoretical and practical input regarding antibiotic prescribing. Although medical officers and general physician knowledge level was good, but actual real-life attitude and practice cannot be assessed because of the study design. Common people had a lot of misunderstanding regarding antibiotic use and AMR. All these studies incorporated suggested that further educational intervention is warranted to promote prudent use of antibiotic and prevent AMR. This review similarly advocates educational interventions among all stakeholders of healthcare with a special emphasis on antibiotics stewardship and regulatory enforcement programme to promote rational use of antimicrobial and to prevent AMR.
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REVIEW ARTICLES
Is breech presentation associated with autism spectrum disorders among children: A meta-analysis
Ensiyeh Jenabi, Saeid Bashirian, Salman Khazaei
January-April 2019, 9(1):12-15
DOI:10.4103/AIHB.AIHB_42_18  
The meta-analysis of case–control and cohort studies was conducted to obtain the association between breech presentation and the risk of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) among children. The search for relevant studies in major electronic databases was performed including; Web of Science, PubMed and Scopus up to May 2018. The odds ratio (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) was extracted from eligible studies. The pooled estimate of OR was not indicated a significant association between breech presentation and risk of ASD among children (OR = 1.15, 95% CI = 0.93–1.37), but this association was significant in the unadjusted analysis (OR = 1.32, 95% CI = 1.05–1.58). Our findings were not showed that breech presentation is associated with increased risk of ASD among children.
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ATM and ATR checkpoint kinase pathways: A concise review
Varsha Wagh, Pranav Joshi, Heena Jariyal, Neelam Chauhan
May-August 2020, 10(2):51-59
DOI:10.4103/AIHB.AIHB_78_19  
The ataxia-telangiectasia-mutated (ATM) and ataxia-telangiectasia-mutated and Rad3-related (ATR) DNA damage repair pathways serve as the surveillance system which keeps a check on different types of DNA damages and lesions, which includes DNA single-strand breaks, DNA double-strand breaks and other aberrant structures such as arrested replication forks during replication. The ATM and ATR kinases belong to PIKK class of kinases which activate a large number of downstream mediator and effector molecules. The main classes of effector kinases activated by ATM and ATR are checkpoint kinase 2 and checkpoint kinase 1, respectively. ATR works primarily with the RAD9-RAD1-HUS1 (9-1-1) complex, whereas ATM works with the MRE11– RAD50–NBS1 complex. Together ATM and ATR kinase protects the cells' genomic integrity and prevents random mutations to be carried into their progeny.
  5,623 333 1
Revival of dermatoglyphics: Syndromes and disorders, a review
N Lakshmana, Abhishek Singh Nayyar, B Vamsi Pavani, M V R Ratnam, G Upendra
January-April 2017, 7(1):2-7
DOI:10.4103/2321-8568.199528  
Dermatoglyphics deals with the study of the epidermal ridges and their configurations on the fingers, palms and soles. The word dermatoglyphics is derived from the Greek word 'Derma' meaning skin and 'glyphics' meaning carvings. Dermatoglyphics, once matured, remain unchanged throughout the life of an individual and are not influenced by either the environmental or, age-related factors. Because of these amazing qualities, these dermal ridges play a very crucial and important role in the personal identification of an individual, for forensic purposes, in twin diagnosis, racial variation and have applied values in various diseases and syndromes. Dermatoglyphics has, therefore, been accepted as a simple and inexpensive method for deciding whether a patient would have a particular genetic or, chromosomal defect or, not, and if so, to adopt the preventive strategies at the early enough stages.
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